Below is a copy of both my Cell Phone Policy and Power Hour
Cell Phone Policy: Possession and use of personal telecommunications devices, including mobile telephones and or smart watches during any class assignment or testing is prohibited. Students will not be permitted to display, turn on, or use a telecommunications device, including a cellular telephone, or other electronic device during any class activity or testing in room 209.
Texting and videotaping are not permitted anytime during any class activity or testing.
Failure to follow these guidelines will result in the student receiving the grade of “0” for that class activity or test. This policy is in effect throughout the school year.
During Power Hour students may:
- Complete missed projects or assignments
- Complete additional assignments given by teachers for grade recovery
- Receive tutoring by teachers
- Retake tests
- Work on homework
- Active participation during Power Hour sessions will help eliminate failures and help students get back on track and maintain academic success.
- Students who receive a grade of 64 or below on a summative assessment will be allowed one opportunity to redo/retake the assessment only after remediation or re-teaching takes place during Power Hour. The highest grade a student may earn on a retake is a 65. Teachers have the discretion to re-administer any assessment.
PREREQUISITE ASSIGNMENT (Due Date: 9/10/2018)
Every student enrolled in Honors Chemistry is required to complete a prerequisite work assignment packet during the first three weeks of class and prior to our first summative assessment the third week of class (Sept. 10, 2018). This packet is designed to help the student review and preview material that was learned in prerequisite science classes along with some basic knowledge of skills/concepts for this course. The material is necessary for the student to be successful in this honors course that he/she has chosen. A pre-test will be given August 20 and 21, 2018, which is the first and second day of class to assess the student’s knowledge of this content covered and completed in this packet. This pre-test WILL NOT be reflected on the grading period.
As the instructor, I will personally consult with the parent/student to discuss their future in the class if:
- The student does not complete the prerequisite work assignment
- The student does not turn in the prerequisite work assignment by the third week of class.
- The student does not show adequate knowledge of the subject material covered on the pretest.
If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me by email at firstname.lastname@example.org or call the high school office at (803) 641-2600.
I have read and understand the information written above.
Student signature: ____________________________________________ Date: __________________
Parent/guardian signature: _____________________________________ Date: __________________
I ____________________________ attest that all the work contained in this packet is my own. This does not mean that you can’t ask for help from others or myself on this, I would highly suggest that you do, however, this means that you did not just copy someone’s work.
Student signature: ___________________________________________ Date: ____________________
Parents: Please take some time to look over this packet as well. Pay close attention to directions especially where it notes to “show work to support your answer.”
In order to prepare you for the Honors Chemistry course, a packet of work covering concepts from previous science courses and basics skills of this course has been assigned. This packet is broken into seven different parts. All parts of this packet need to be fully completed and turned in on OR before the third week of class, Monday, September 10, 2018.
There are no exceptions to this due date. I know that things come up that are unexpected but you are given three weeks to complete the packet. It is expected that you complete this packet in a timely manner, and not at the last minute.
It is recommended that you look through the entire packet to see what is expected of you to begin Honors Chemistry. If the material seems overwhelming or exceptionally difficult that may be a sign that you should not be taking Honors Chemistry due to its rigorous coursework.
Information to help grasp concepts/skills is provided in the packet including links to great online resources. You are not limited to only using the resources and information provided. I strongly suggest that if you need more guidance or help in understanding a concept to do further research on your own. Please remember that not all websites are “credible.” Wikipedia is NOT credible!
You will have the opportunity to ask questions or clarifications at any time throughout the assignment by emailing me at email@example.com or by consulting with other classmates keeping in mind that this does not mean copy off your peers. I will check my emails daily to answer questions. Seek help early rather than waiting until the last minute.
The pre-test will be given on the first and second day of class. If there are any questions at the time you turn in your prerequisite work assignment packet, there will be a Q & A session at the end of the period.
Any, last minute questions that still need to be answered can be addressed at that time.
If this packet gets lost somehow, you can obtain another copy of it off my web page at any time.
Part I- Introduction to Chemistry
Before we get started with the content in this packet, it is important to understand what chemistry is, its origins and meaning. Watch this short YouTube clip using the link below. The video clip is called, “Introduction to Chemistry,” and is only a few minutes in length.
Using the following URL address to access a podcast posted on YouTube, answer the remaining questions and complete all tasks in part one.
Introduction to Chemistry
- What is the definition of chemistry?
- What is a chemical element?
There are approximately 115 chemical elements on the periodic table. Each element has a chemical name and a chemical symbol such as sodium (Na). You will notice that not all of the chemical symbols seem to correspond to their name. Look at the examples below.
“C” for carbon obviously makes sense but “K” for potassium does not.
This occurs because the symbols of these elements are derived from the Latin language. It is vital that you are VERY familiar with the most common elements. We will be using these throughout every concept in this class. For this reason, you are going to be required, as part of this summer assignment, to create flashcards of the identified elements listed below. Place the name of the element on one side and the symbol on the other. You are required to bring this set of notecards with you on the 1st day of class to turn in with your packet.
Note: When memorizing elements & symbols, keep in mind that spelling should be CLOSE and symbols involving more than one letter are always written with the first letter capitalized and the second lowercase. This is important to help identify when one element ends and the next begins.
Example: SI – would be a compound containing sulfur and iodine
Si – would be the element silicon
The scientific method is a logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem. Although the precise steps of this method can vary widely requirements include making observations, testing hypotheses, and developing theories from results.
Watch the following clip from a Myth Busters episode that provides an example of this process. Answer the questions as you view the clip to reinforce your knowledge of the scientific method.
- What is the problem presented?
- What do you think the Myth Busters hypothesis is?
- Why might moisture not be needed on the moon to make a clear footprint?
- What is the Myth Busters procedure in this experiment? Write a chronological list in a numerical format of steps. Make sure to use complete sentences.
- What was the Myth Busters conclusion? Discuss if their hypothesis was right and how they know for sure.
Scientific Method Continued….
In this class, you are going to be required to create your own experiments in some instances rather than being given a step-by-step procedure. This can be a very difficult task for a lot of students so here are some important things to keep in mind:
Hypotheses: The hypothesis of an experiment should be clearly identified before attempting to set up an experiment. This is usually an “if-then” statement which is testable and can be proved or disproved. For example, “If I introduce a flame to diethyl either, then I will get an explosion.” To test your hypothesis one must have controls and variables where controls are properties that are kept constant such as temperature or pressure and variables are factors affecting change in order to view a relationship.
There are two variables that should be present in an effective experiment: an independent variable and a dependent variable. Using your own credible online resources, define the following two terms.
How many factors or variables “should” be changing within an experiment? _________________
Why do you think this is important?
Data: There are two types of data that can be collected from an experiment: qualitative and quantitative. Using the URL listed below, define these two terms. Make sure to analyze examples given to fully understand the two. In class, we will discuss further what makes good qualitative and quantitative observation. For now, understanding what they are is sufficient.
Experimentation: Testing the hypothesis usually required multiple trials to assure results accurate and precise. These are two more terms in which it will be vital for you to understand. To be accurate is not the same as to be precise. Use the following link to help you better understand the two and write a definition for each below.
Once more, we will elaborate on these terms and how they apply to our specific experimentation in class this year. For now, simply understand their nature and their differences.
Conclusions: Drawing conclusions and discussing the conclusions are often the most forgotten or skipped over part of the scientific method in middle school and high school laboratories. Although sometimes skipped, this is one of the most important parts of the process and will be a part that we put a lot of emphasis on in this class. It is difficult for most students to draw conclusions about an experiment and relate their conclusions back to scientific concepts. It is also a struggle to write clear statements and explanations of findings. In honors chemistry, we will be working on this throughout the entire year. In our conclusions, there are two elements that often appear. These include a scientific law and a scientific theory. As a student who will be participating in lab regularly, you must understand the difference between these two terms and begin utilizing them in your conclusions. Watch the short video clip below to help define these terms.
Scientific Law: Scientific Theory:
(END OF PART I)
Part II- The Metric System
In this section, we introduce the standards for basic measurement in the scientific world. Scientist conduct experiments where data is collected and shared all over the globe. Although the United States has their own standards for measurement, the scientific world using the International System of Units (SI) or what is commonly known as the metric system. Data collection and its accuracy are crucial in the chemistry lab. Scientists use the same system of measurement so that data can be easily shared and compared with other data. The metric system provides that unity. Below are the fundamental units, also known as the “base” units, which have been defined in the metric system.
In chemistry, we commonly use the first five. The metric system is a decimal system where prefixes are used to indicate fraction and multiples of ten. The same prefixes can be used with any of the above base units. The next table displays the identified prefixes. The more familiar you become with this system the easier calculations will be in the future.
For this assignment, it is important to be able to convert within the metric system, such as from centimeters to kilometers. To help aid in the understanding of this process watch the following YouTube video. Pay particular attention to the “dimensional analysis” method as this is the method that you will be using in this class and with many other conversions that will be discussing. Watch the video, analyze the example problem shown below and then try the practice problems.
Example: How many millimeters are equivalent to 15 hectometers?
Step #1: Determine what you know including the unit and what unit you are looking for in the end. Then, place the given over one (remember any whole number can be put over one) to begin the problem.
Given: 15 hectometer (hm)
Looking for: ??? millimeters (mm)
Step #2: Determine the conversion factors needed to get from hectometers to millimeters. From the metric system displayed above, 1 hm = 100 m and 1m = 1000 mm. Set these conversion factors up in fraction form so that the appropriate units cancel leaving you with only the unit desired for the final answer. The work would look something like this:
Step #3: Before calculating your answer, double check that all units cancel out but the unit desired in the problem. Remember: If the same unit is on the top of the fraction as the bottom, they cancel!
Step #4: Calculate the final answer. Multiple across the top and across the bottom, then divide as your last step.
Now Your Turn: Make sure that the work shown reflects what you see in the work above for full credit. All work, units, numbers, etc. count towards full credit on each problem.
- How many kilograms are equal to 1500 centigrams
- Determine the number of liters in 6578 milliliters.
- How many decimeters are equivalent to 0.45 kilometers.
***If you need more practice with this conversion method and within the metric system seek other online videos, resources, etc. to help you. Please keep in mind the method in which you will be required to show these conversions as there are others ways in which to approach the problem.
(END OF PART II)
Part III: Scientific Notation
In chemistry, we commonly measure quantities that are very SMALL or very LARGE. For example, 197 grams of gold contains approximately
602, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000 gold atoms
The mass of one gold atom is approximately
0.000 000 000 000 000 000 327 grams
Numbers like these can be better expressed using scientific notation. This notation provides an easier way to state values such as these without the inconvenience of writing out a WHOLE LOT of zeros.
The following video clips are listed to give you a more detailed explanation. The goal for this assignment is to be able to take a number in standard notation and express it in scientific notation and vice versa.
Now Your Turn: Convert the following numbers from scientific notation to standard notation or standard notation to scientific notation.
- 0000657 = ____________________ 3. 5.01x10-7 = _____________________
- 19x108 = ______________________ 4. 12,000,000 = ____________________
Calculating with Numbers in Scientific Notation
Another common mathematical computation is when numbers expressed in this notation are added/subtracted or multiplied/divided. Watch the following videos to help you better understand the proper way to carry out these various operations and then try some on your own for practice.
Now Your Turn: Perform the following operations.
- (6.8 x 103) x (4.54 x 106) = ________________ (3.95 x 105) + (7.8 x 103) = _______________
- (2.0 x 10 -1) x (8.5 x 105) = ________________ (7.83 x 10-2) - (2.20 x 10-3) = _____________
- divide (9.2 x 10-3) by (6.3 x 106) = ______________ (8.23 x 104) - (3.02 x 105) = ________________
- divide (2.4 x 10 6) by (5.49 x 10-9) = ____________ 8. (6.423 x 1010) + (5.001 x 10-8) = __________
(END OF PART III)
Part IV: Algebraic Transformations
A crucial part of being successful in chemistry is having strong mathematical skills. Although the math in this course is not extremely difficult, it does require solid knowledge of algebra including solving equations. There is a math prerequisite to be enrolled in this course; therefore you should be able to complete the following. All of the equations below are ones that you will see throughout this course at some point along with many others. If you begin struggling, seek help from online resources for further guidance.
Complete the following: Make sure to show all algebraic steps to get to your final answer.
- Solve the equation PV = nRT for n.
- Solve the equation for T2.
- Solve the equation for x.
Calculation the following and express all final answers to two decimal places.
- Using the formula calculate L if M= 0.86 and m = 4.75.
- Using the formula calculate P2 if P1 = 1.5, V1 = 16, T1 = 273, V2 = 5.0, and T2 = 331
Finally, graphing is a big part of data analysis in chemistry. It is important that you are able to graph relationships properly. In the following provided graph space, graph the function C = 4t-1, where C is on the y-axis and t is on the x-axis.
(END OF PART IV)
Part V: States of Matter
Investigate each state of matter using the link above. Once your investigation is complete, answer the following questions regarding the properties of each state.
- In the table below, list the properties of each state of matter, an example of each & sketch a diagram of their particles.
There is a fourth state of matter known as plasma. Use the following resource below. Investigate plasmas and their properties then answer the question listed below.
- Give one example of a natural plasma and one example of a man-made plasma.
- Plasmas have similar characteristics to what state of matter? ______________________
- Identify what major property of plasmas that is different from the state listed in part b.
Now that you have an understanding of matter and its different states, you will be reviewing state changes. Using prior knowledge and credible sources, label each arrow in the diagram below with the correct name of the process that is occurring. Note: There are six arrows, therefore, you should have six labels.
From the Physical Science course that you have just completed, heating and cooling curves like the ones shown below should have been discussed. For this assignment, you will be investigating the basic concepts of this graph so that you are prepared to analyze this type of graph in more depth and from a quantitative perspective.
Graph A Graph B
Answer the following questions based on your knowledge of this graph and what it displays. If this is a concept that you do not recall, you will need to use your resources such as the internet or old materials from physical science to help you answer the questions below.
- What state(s) of matter would be observed between point B and C on Graph A?
- Identify which region(s) on Graph B where a state change is occurring?
- Describe temperature as a state change occurs.
- At what temperature would the substance in Graph B begin freezing? _____________________
- What state of matter is the substance being described in Graph A in between points E and F?
Part VI: Atom Basics
In previous science courses, you learned about the basic components and concepts involving the atom. Understanding of this knowledge is vital for success in this course. We will not be spending time going over the following topics, as we assume you already grasp these concepts. You may, however, see them incorporated into other content in this class or be asked to recall information to aid in the understanding of our current topic. The atom is the basis of this course. Chemistry concepts build upon one another where we start with our smallest substances and work up to our most complex. To the right, label the components of our atom.
Answer the questions below using the labeled diagram on the previous page.
- The atomic number of an atom = __________________________________
- The mass of an atom (mass number) can be determined by: ______________________________________________________________________
- What do the “rings” in the diagram represent? ________________________________
- What name is given to the electrons located in the outermost “ring”? __________________
- Why are these electrons significant? ______________________________________________
- If the atom above has 6 protons, 5 neutrons, and 6 electrons:
- What is the name of the element is this model representing? ________________
- What is the overall charge on this atom? ________________________
- What is the mass of this atom? ________________________
Using credible sources or prior knowledge, determine the answers to the following questions.
- What is an isotope?
- If two isotopes of phosphorus are identified above, answer the following:
- Which isotope has a larger mass? ___________
- How many protons does isotope #2 contain? __________
- How many neutrons does isotope #1 contain? __________
- If both isotopes have an overall charge zero (neutral) how many electrons would each of them contain? _____________________
(END OF PART VI)
Part VII: Periodic Table Basics
Similar to the Atom Basics section, we expect from your previous science courses that you have a basic understanding of the Periodic Table. This table is an arrangement of all chemical elements that provide us with an enormous amount of information. We will spend some time looking at the different pieces of information that it tells us beyond what you already know. For now, you should be able to answer the following questions. Once again, if you begin struggling with the content start looking for online resources to help you. I provided a good source to get you started.
- Determine which elements on the periodic table are considered metals. Then, choose a color to shade in the appropriate boxes of the elements that you identified.
- Determine which elements on the periodic table are considered non-metals. Then, choose a color to shade in the appropriate boxes of the elements that you identified.
- Determine which elements on the periodic table are considered metalloids (semiconductors). Then, choose a color to shade in the appropriate boxes of the elements that you identified.
- Define a metalloid.
- What are the columns on the periodic table called? ______________________________
- What are the rows of the periodic table called? ___________________________
- The majority of the elements on the periodic table are what state of matter at room temperature? _________
- What two elements are liquid at room temperature? ______________ and ______________
- Although there are many groups on the periodic table, what is the name of the group 18 elements and what is their significance?
- Which of the following would have similar properties to one another and give a brief explanation of how you made this determination?
Magnesium, calcium, and barium or phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine
- What charge would lithium form when becoming an ion if located in Group 1? ________________
- How many valence electrons does fluorine have in its outermost energy level? _________________
- If an unknown element has two valence electrons and commonly forms a +2 charge when forming an ion, what is a possibility for its identity? Hint: There is more than one correct answer. ____________________
- There are two major types of bonds that occur as these elements combine with other elements on the table; ionic and covalent bonds. Define each of the following below and give an example of each. Use the following link to aid in your responses: http://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Chemistry/1/Chemical-Bonding/55
(END PART VII)
Part VIII: Lab Equipment & Measurement
The laboratory is a very large component of our chemistry class. You will quickly be learning the set-up, the safety rules, and general operation of the lab when you return to school in the first few days. To save crucial learning time, we are going to introduce you to the different pieces of equipment that you may use at some point in the chemistry lab. Some of the equipment you may be familiar with but most will be brand new. Lab procedures will run more effectively and quicker if you are knowledgeable about what pieces of equipment you are working with, how to use them, and what to use them for. The following section will give you a chance to learn about all the different pieces so that you are ready for the lab as the first one approaches in the fall.
Quizlet is a great online study resource. If you are not familiar with this site it is one in which you can make virtual flashcards and study them online. (This is also a great way to study your elements!) Quizlet allows you to make your own card with terms or you can use one that has already been created. We are going to use a set that is already been created for our different pieces of equipment. Note: You will not be required to know ALL of the equipment in the pre-made set of terms. Therefore, go through and STAR the following pieces.
Mortar and pestle
Test tube rack
Crucible and cover
Test tube clamp
Dropper pipet or disposable pipet
Once you are starred all pieces listed in the table hit the “Learn” button at the top of the screen. You will see the first question pop up. Make sure to hit the “Starred terms” button above the question so that it will only quiz you on the ones you have chosen.
There may be other various pieces of equipment that we use throughout the year but this list is of the most common. Your task is to study the pieces of equipment paying particular attention to what they look like and what they are used for.
(END OF PART VIII)
So that you are prepared for the 1st summative assessment, it is very important that you finish the packet and return it on or before the third week of class, September 10, 2018. Remember, you will be turning your packet in on the 16th day of school and taking the pre-test over it on the second day. The packet should not only be completed but used as a study tool for your first summative assessment. Do not forget to bring your flashcards with you as well when you turn in your prerequisite work assignment package. I would STRONGLY urge you to dedicate a small chunk of time each week to complete a portion of this packet. I will be sending out reminders throughout the first three weeks of school to keep you on task as much as I can. Be responsible! If the packet is not completed and/or you do not pass the pre-test we will need to discuss your future in this course. I know that you all are very tech savvy and can use the internet, so do so for this assignment just make sure that you are utilizing credible sites. I have left some space below to write down any questions that you have for me throughout the summer and any that you may have as you return to school on the first day.
GOOD LUCK and WELCOME TO CHEMISTRY! Get ready plenty of rest and relaxation as we have a big year ahead of us!