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    02/25-28/2020

    Solving half life problems

    Learning Objectives

    • Define half-life.
    • Define dating.
    • Calculate age of old objects by radioactive dating.

     

    02/24/2020

    Unit Overview

    Topics to be discussed are as follows: superposition, reading of the geologic time scale, horizontality, land formations

    Essential Questions:

    1.      What is a fossil and what does it tell us about the past?

    2.      What is relative dating?

    3.      What is absolute time and how is it measured?

    4.      How do scientists organize the major events of earth’s history/

    5.      How do the Eras differ?

    6.      What are the major events in each Era?

     

    There are two main themes to today's lesson.

    • One of these is to see how organisms have changed with time, and the other is to
    • see what kinds of organisms were present on life at particular times in the past.

    Lesson Plan & Overview 02/18/to 02/22

    Lesson Overview: Objective: Students will be able to: 1. Analyze the geologic time scale. 2. Explain the creation of the geologic time scale. 3. Understand the difference between geologic time and human time scales. 4. Compare and contrast relative and absolute dating.

    • Students will be able to explain and diagram the divisions of time in the history of life on Earth. They will become familiar with the vocabulary used to name each of the time segments. Students will demonstrate that the geologic time scale does not divide the age of Earth into equal parts as our clock or calendar does. Students will be able to explain that the divisions of the geologic time scale depend on events in the history of the Earth. Students will explain that the types of organisms living on Earth changed over long periods of time according to the evidence provided by the fossil record. 

      Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?

      Students should be familiar with the concept of fossils, relative and absolute age of rocks, layers of Earth, continental drift, Pangaea, and the concept of creating time lines.

      Students should have prior experience with thinking maps, specifically brace maps. However, the teacher should review the concept of brace maps before students start their independent work.

    • Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?

      • Did humans and dinosaurs live on Earth at the same time?
      • How is the age of life on Earth measured in the geologic time scale?
      • How does physical evidence support scientific theories that Earth has evolved over geologic time due to natural processes?

    Attachments

    GeologicTimeScaleReferenceChart.docx
    Geologic Time Scale Project.xls
    Geologic Time Scale Brace MapKey.docx
    Historyofthe.docx
    Geologic Time Scaleworksheet(1).docx
    Geologic Time Scale worksheet answerkey(1).docx

     

    Lesson Plan: 02/10 to 02/15

     

    Lesson Content

    • Lesson Plan Template: 
      General Lesson Plan
    • Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?

      Online Videos on "GEOLOGICAL TIME & GEOTIME SCALE"

      a. youtube- Geological Time Scale - 4.5 billion yrs
      b. youtube- Geologic Time- the Basics
      c. youtube- Geological Timescale, CambrianScience
      d. youtube- Brief History of Geologic Time


      Students will be able to explain and diagram the divisions of time in the history of life on Earth. They will become familiar with the vocabulary used to name each of the time segments. Students will demonstrate that the geologic time scale does not divide the age of Earth into equal parts as our clock or calendar does. Students will be able to explain that the divisions of the geologic time scale depend on events in the history of the Earth. Students will explain that the types of organisms living on Earth changed over long periods of time according to the evidence provided by the fossil record.

       

    • Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?

      Students should be familiar with the concept of fossils, relative and absolute age of rocks, layers of Earth, continental drift, Pangaea, and the concept of creating time lines.

      Students should have prior experience with thinking maps, specifically brace maps. However, the teacher should review the concept of brace maps before students start their independent work.

    • Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?

      • Did humans and dinosaurs live on Earth at the same time?
      • How is the age of life on Earth measured in the geologic time scale?
      • How does physical evidence support scientific theories that Earth has evolved over geologic time due to natural processes?

       

    • Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?

      Teacher will pose a question: Did humans and dinosaurs live on Earth at the same time? (The answer is "No"). 

       

      Teacher will wait for students to respond and start a class discussion. 

      Ask students questions about how old the earth is and when did life first appear on Earth? 

      What kind of living things were there? 

      Ask specific questions such as, were the animals of today around when Earth first formed? 

      When did reptiles start appearing?  When was the first human on Earth? 

      If they already hypothesized that animals have changed over time, then ask, why? 

      What is different about Earth now, than it was then?  Based on student responses, the teacher will be able to see if students are familiar with scientific vocabulary related to the Geologic Time Scale. Students may bring up the Flintstones or the Jurassic Park, Ice Age, or the Land Before Time. 

      The teacher can then talk about how we have been figuring out how old the Earth is based on our collection of fossils and where they have appeared in rock formations. Scientists have pieced together a history of Earth based on these and other findings.

      This will be a great starting point to introduce the geologic time scale reference table.

      Geologic Time Scale Reference Chart.docx

      Ask students to take a few minutes to review the chart before asking questions.

    • Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?

      Teacher will explain the organization of the geologic time scale by asking probing questions, such as "What is the name of the period we live in right now?" or "Which segment of time lasted the longest amount of time?" 

       

      Next the teacher should hand out the Geologic Time worksheet and review the questions. Ask students how they might go about answering the questions to determine if they understand what they are being asked to do.  

      • Question #1: Students should focus on the time divisions between the eras and subtract to find out how long each era lasted (Mesozoic Era lasted 185 million years, because 251 - 66 = 185).
      • Question #2: Students create a pie chart to show the percentage of time each Era of geologic time represents in the geologic time scale. A pie chart is used to compare the different parts that make up a whole amount. Students use the data they have input in the data table in #1 to create the pie chart. 100% = 360 "degrees". 1% = 3.6 "degrees". Students can use a protractor to create a pie chart. Other students may be able to estimate the size of each section on the pie chart without using the protractor. (75% is 3/4 of the circle, 12.5% is about 1/2 of the remaining pie. 75+12.5=87.5 which is acceptable for 88%)
    • Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?

      Day 1: Students will complete the worksheet questions 1 - 5 and complete a thinking map.

      Geologic Time Scale worksheet.docx

      Geologic Time Scale worksheet answer key (1).docx

      Geologic Time Scale Brace Map Key.docx

      Day 2: Each student will choose an animal or another organism and will trace it back to their most basic relative. Students use computers with internet access to research the evolutionary path the organism made through geologic time. The teacher may provide links to the websites to save time and to ensure quality research.  Some links are provided below. Sites for students should be free of ads and should be from research sites if at all possible.  

      The final product can be a brochure, a timeline, or a poster. 

      History of the.docx

      Students will have an opportunity to finish the project at home and use the rubric to guide them as they work on the project.Geologic Time Scale Project.xls

      The point of this activity is to find how the animals they are familiar with have changed over time. Some discoveries will be made that students will be surprised to find. Some suggestions to research would include dogs, cats, alligators, shark, manatees, dolphins, horses and even a chicken.

       

    • Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?

      This entire lesson is designed to assist students in organizing their knowledge of the geologic time scale. The brace map, the data table and the pie chart will help students to organize their knowledge.

      In addition, from the final product students will be able to put a story together regarding the history of Earth.  Animals have changed over time as evidenced by the fossil record. All animals (and all living things) have changed at different times and at different rates.  

       

    • Summative Assessment

      The activities in this lesson will lead to summative assessment and demonstrating mastery including:
      • Students are able to interpret the geologic time scale by understanding that each segment lasted various amounts of time. 
      • Students will be able to use the reference chart to calculate the length of time of each of the Eras and Precambrian Time. 
      • Students will be able to complete the pie chart that shows the proportion each of the segments of time represents in the entire age of the Earth. 
      • Students will demonstrate their understanding of the organization and relationships of the Eras and Periods in the Geologic Time Scale by completing a thinking map. 
      • The completion of the brace map shows that students understand the parts to the whole relationship in the geologic time scale. 
      • Students will place fossils of various organisms in the correct Periods using the reference chart. 
      • Students are able to make observations regarding the complexity of the fossils as we move through the geologic time scale from Precambrian Time to present and draw a conclusion based on their observations. 

      Each of the 5 questions on the activity sheet is worth 20 points.

    • Formative Assessment

      The teacher will walk around, spot-check students' work and ask probing questions if students are not progressing adequately. Sample questions: 

      • How will you calculate the amount of time each of the time sections lasted? 
      • Do we need to focus on the time divisions between the periods or eras in order to complete the data table in #1? 
      • Do you remember what a pie chart shows? 
      • Do you remember what a brace map looks like? 

      If multiple students are having the same reoccurring difficulty, the teacher can stop the independent work session and address the whole class to clarify the issue.

    • Feedback to Students

      The teacher will ask probing questions regarding interpreting the Geologic Time Scale Reference Chart, filling out the data table, setting up the pie chart, and filling out the brace map. Students will have an opportunity to ask their teacher to look over their progress and to identify errors during the lesson before they turn their completed assignment in.

       

       

    Accommodations & Recommendations


    • Accommodations:

      Students will be able to use a protractor and a calculator to complete the pie chart.

      Students will get teacher's assistance to complete the calculation and the pie chart if necessary. A template of a brace map can be provided if necessary.

      Students can be paired up if necessary to assist in the calculation and creation of the pie chart as well as diagramming of the brace map.

      The teacher can control the reading level by printing out selected articles for research for low level readers.


    • Extensions:

      Students can be challenged to provide another way to present the geologic time scale besides the pie chart and the brace map. Students may say that the geologic time scale could be represented by a bar graph, a layered cake or stairs. Encourage creative and innovative analogies. Students can be asked to make a model of the geologic time scale based on their analogy.


    • Suggested Technology: Document Camera, Computers for Students, Internet Connection, Basic Calculators, Overhead Projector, Microsoft Office

    •  

      Special Materials Needed:

       

      Day 1: Prepare copies of the geologic time scale worksheet for each student. Provide a class set of the geologic time scale reference chart. Each student will need a blank piece of paper to complete the thinking map. Art supplies can be available for students who would like to add color or drawings to their thinking maps and pie charts.

      Day 2-3: Students will have computers with internet access to research an organism of their choice and trace it back through the geologic time to its most basic relative. Students then work on a final product such as a brochure, a timeline or a poster to show the change of the organism over time as seen in the fossil record.

     

     

    Other time periods

    Paleozoic Era: Facts & Information

    Mesozoic Era: Age of the Dinosaurs

    Cenozoic Era: Facts About Climate, Animals & Plants

     

     

    Lesson Plan & Lab

    02/03/2020 to 02/07/2020

    SWBAT: Complete the   student sheet (attached). Due Friday 02/07/2020

    Lesson/Activity: Students learn how engineers characterize earthquakes through seismic data. Then, acting as engineers, they use real-world seismograph data and a tutorial/simulation accessed through the Earthquakes Living Lab to locate earthquake epicenters via triangulation and determine earthquake magnitudes.

    Student pairs examine seismic waves, S waves and P waves recorded on seismograms, measuring the key S-P interval.

    Students then determine the maximum S wave amplitudes in order to determine earthquake magnitude, a measure of the amount of energy released.

    Students consider how engineers might use and implement seismic data in their design work.

    A worksheet serves as a student guide for the activity.

    PRELAB PREPARATION

    To locate the epicenter of an earthquake, scientists must have seismograms from at least three seismic stations.

    The procedure for locating an epicenter has three steps: Scientists find the difference between the arrival times of the primary and the secondary waves at each of the three stations.

    The time difference is used to determine the distance of the epicenter from each station.

    The greater the difference in time, the farther away the epicenter is. A circle is drawn around each station, with a radius corresponding to the epicenter’s distance from that station.

    The point where the three circles meet is the epicenter

    The time difference between the arrival of primary and secondary waves is recorded on a seismogram at each location.

    The arrival-time difference is used to determine the distance of the epicenter from the station.

    Plotting Distance The distance from the station is used to plot a circle on a map. At least three circles are needed to locate the epicenter
     

    1. Calculate the following problems, which apply to information in the procedure. The average speed of S waves is 4.1 km/s. The average speed of P waves is 6.1 km/s. To calculate the time it takes seismic waves to travel a given distance, divide that distance by the average speed of each wave.
    A. How long would it take P waves to travel 100 km? How long would it take them to travel 200km?

    B. How long would it take S waves to travel 100 km? How long would it take them to travel 200 km?

    C. What is the time between the arrival of P waves and S waves over a distance of 100 km? What is the lag time for a distance of 200 km?

    PROCEDURE
     

    1. Students are given illustrations of seismograph records in three cities following an earthquake. These illustrations begin at the left with the arrival of the P waves indicated. Use the time scale provided to find the lag time between the P waves and the S waves for each city. Be sure to measure the time from the arrival of the P wave to the arrival of the S wave. Record this information in a table of your own with columns for city, lag time, and distance from epicenter.

    2. Find the distance from each city to the epicenter of the earthquake. To calculate these distances, use the lag times you found in Step 1, information from the prelab preparation, and the following formula. Distance = measured lag times x  (100 km / calculated lag time)

    3. From a copied map which shows the location of the three cities and a scale in kilometers, adjust the compass so that the radius of the circle with Austin at the center is equal to the distance from the epicenter of the earthquake to Austin as calculated in Step 2.  Put the point of the compass on Austin. Draw a circle on your copy of the map.

    4. Repeat Step 3 for Bismarck and then for Portland. The epicenter of the earthquake is located near the point at which the three circles intersect.
     
     

    ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSIONS
     

    1. The location of the earthquake epicenter is closest to what city?

    2. Why must there be measurements from three different locations to find the epicenter of an earthquake?

    3. What is the probability of a major earthquake happening here?

    4. If an earthquake did occur in this area what would be its probable cause?
     
     

    EXTENSIONS
     

    1. Using data from real earthquakes recorded by our seismometer and other PEPP sites students can investigate real world earth science events.

    2. There are several operating coal mines in the area. With cooperation of other PEPP sites in our area we may be able to identify mine blasts.

     

     

    01/27-31/2020 Benchmark Testing and Review

    01/21-24/2020 Lesson plan Earth Quakes & Epicenters

    All earthquakes start beneath Earth’s surface. The of an earthquake is the point underground where rocks first begin to move. Seismic waves travel outward from the earthquake’s focus. The (EHP-ih-SEHN-tuhr) is the point on Earth’s surface directly above the focus. Scientists often name an earthquake after the city that is closest to its epicenter. In general, if two earthquakes of equal strength have the same epicenter, the one with the shallower focus causes more damage. Seismic waves from a deep-focus earthquake lose more of their energy as they travel farther up to Earth’s surface. The depths of earthquakes along tectonic plate boundaries are related to the directions in which the plates move. For example, an earthquake along a mid-ocean spreading center has a shallow focus. There, the plates are pulling apart, and the new crust that forms is thin. Subduction zones have a wide range of earthquake depths, from shallow to very deep. Earthquakes can occur anywhere along the sinking plates

    Locating the Epicenter of an Earthquake

    Introduction: The epicenter is the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake. Seismic stations detect earthquakes by the tracings made on seismographs. Tracings made at three separate seismic stations are needed to locate an earthquake epicenter.

    Objective: To identify the location of an earthquake epicenter using a travel time graph and three

    seismograph tracings.

    Materials:. Ruler map safety drawing compass Earth Science Reference Tables

    Procedure: 1. Study the three seismograph tracings below. Notice the time scale below each tracing.

    Each mark on the time scale represents one minute.

     

    Students will:

    Apply the concept of “triangulation” to locate an earthquake’s epicenter.

    Determine the distance of an earthquake from a location by measuring the delay between primary and secondary shock waves.

    Analyze and interpret data.

    Construct explanations and design solutions.

     

    What is an earthquake?

    What causes an earthquake?

    What is the epicenter of an earthquake?

    What is an aftershock?

    How might a scientist predict an earthquake?

    interpret a seismograph reading to determine distance to an earthquake's epicenter;

    interpret a seismograph reading to determine the Richter magnitude of an earthquake;

    pinpoint an earthquake's epicenter using a minimum of three seismograph readings.

    Objectives for the topic: Earthquakes
    • Define an earthquake, as well as its epicenter and focus.
    • Explain the relationship between earthquakes and faults.
    • Explain the occurrence of earthquakes according to elastic rebound theory.
    • Describe where (in a Plate Tectonic sense) different types of earthquakes are generated.

    Objectives for the topic: Earthquakes

    After completing this topic, the student will be able to:

    1. Define an earthquake, as well as its epicenter and focus.
    2. Explain the relationship between earthquakes and faults.
    3. Explain the occurrence of earthquakes according to elastic rebound theory.
    4. Describe where (in a Plate Tectonic sense) different types of earthquakes are generated.
    5. Describe the process of locating earthquake epicenters using P and S waves.
    6. Describe the two main scales for measuring the size of an earthquake (Mercalli and Richter magnitude).
    7. Explain the relationship of the Wadati-Benioff zone to convergent plate margins.
    8. Explain how earthquakes are used to reveal the deep structure of the earth, particularly the liquid nature of the outer core

    In the student prepared study guide, SWBAT

    • Students will look at locations and magnitudes of recent earthquakes in the U.S. and globally to gain a better understanding of where and how frequently earthquakes occur.
    • Students will also focus on reading maps and reviewing plate boundary types.
    • Students will learn details about a specific fault in southern California, including what size earthquake each is likely capable of having and when the last major rupture occurred.
    • Students will review the concept of friction, learn about elastic rebound and consider how a simple physical model relates to motion on a fault.
    • Students will learn what types of waves earthquakes generate, how these waves travel through Earth, and how seismologists record motion from earthquakes.
    • Students will learn how earthquakes are located and where earthquakes occur on Earth.
    • Students will review the concept of acceleration and the output of an accelerometer.
    • Students will learn to distinguish measurements of earthquake magnitude from intensity.
    • Students will learn which natural hazards relate to earthquakes and how these have affected people in past earthquakes.
    • Students will learn that seismologists cannot currently predict earthquakes in the short-term but can forecast where large earthquakes are likely to occur over many years.

     

     Overview Week 1: Daily Lessons and Activities
    Details

    • Day 1: Introduction to Earthquakes and Interpreting USGS Seismicity Maps
    • Day 2: Introduction to Southern California Faults.
    • Day 3: Elastic Rebound (I).
    • Day 4: Elastic Rebound (II).
    • Day 5: This class day is left open for including additional materials.
    • Day 1: Earthquake Motion and Seismogram Basics.
    • Day 2: Introduction to the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN Lab).
    • Day 3: Determining Earthquake Locations.
    • Day 4: Magnitude and Intensity (QCN Lab).
    • Day 5: This class day is left open for including additional materials.
    • Day 1: Earthquake-related Hazards.
    • Day 2: Earthquake Forecasting and Prediction.
    • Day 3: Earthquake Safety (optional).

     

    Homework Help & Study Guides: Number 1-23 on your paper and write the correct vocabulary term next to each definition. Illustrate any five word and use 5 words in a complete sentence.

    Reverse fault: Richter scale: Earthquake: Epicenter: P (Primary)wave:  Compression: Normal fault: Moment magnitude scale: Shearing: S (Secondary)

    Strike-slip fault: Tension: wave:  Aftershock: Stress: Fault: Focus: Fault zone: Surface waves: Tsunami: Foreshock: Mercalli scale: Magnitude: Seismic wave: Seismograph: 

    1. a smaller earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake.
    2. a type of stress that squeezes rock, causing it to break or fold.
    3. movement of the ground caused by the release of energy from a sudden shift of rocks in Earth’s crust.
    4. the point on Earth’s surface directly above the focus of an earthquake.
    5. a break in Earth’s crust where movement of rock occurs.

    a place along plate boundaries where many faults are located.

    1. the point below Earth’s surface where movement of rock produces an earthquake.
    2. a small earthquake that precedes a larger earthquake.
    3. the measurement of the total strength or amount of energy released by an earthquake.
    4. a measurement of an earthquake’s intensity based on how much damage it causes. The Mercalli scale ranges from Level I (not felt except by very few under favorable conditions) to Level XII, (causing almost total destruction.)
    5. a measurement of an earthquake’s magnitude based on the amount of movement of the rock along a fault line.
    6. a type of fault where forces of tension are pulling rock apart.
    7. the fastest moving type of seismic wave, which expands and compresses rock, like the movement of a slinky. Also known as pressure waves. P waves can travel through both liquids and solids.
    8. a type of fault where compression pushes rock together. Also known as a thrust fault.
    9. a measurement of the magnitude of an earthquake based on the readings of a seismograph. The Richter scale is a logarithmic scale ranging from 0 to 9, with each number representing a 10-fold increase in ground motion, and a 30-fold increase in energy released.
    10. the second-fastest moving type of seismic wave, which moves rock horizontally from side to side. Also known as shear waves. S waves cannot pass through liquids, and therefore cannot pass through Earth’s liquid outer core.
    11. a vibration that travels through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake.
    12. an instrument that records seismic waves.
    13. a type of stress that pushes two adjacent areas of rock in opposite directions.
    14. a force that causes rock to change shape.
    15. a type of fault where rocks slide horizontally past each other in opposite directions, with little up or down motion. The San Andreas fault in California and the North Anatolian fault in Turkey are examples of strike-slip faults.
    16. seismic waves that move along Earth’s surface. They can have an up-and-down motion or a horizontal motion. Surface waves travel slower than P or S waves and usually cause the most damage.
    17. a type of stress that stretches rock and makes it thinner.
    18. a giant, fast-moving wave that is caused by an undersea earthquake. Also known as a seismic sea wave.

    Directions: Match the Vocabulary Word to its Definition Vocabulary Word Definition

     ____ 1. seismograph                            A. size or measurable quality                                                  

    ____ 2. fault                                        B. the central point of an earthquake ____                                        

     ___ 3. tectonic plates                          C. the chart of an earthquake that a seismograph creates                   

    ___4. magnitude                               D. the place where two tectonic plates meet                                  

     ___5. seismogram                            E. moving of the Earth’s surface due to a movement of a fault

    ___6. earthquake     F. measures the amount of energy released from an earthquake, ranging from 0-10

    ____ 7. Epicenter             G. a machine that measures the time and magnitude of an earthquake

    1. Richter Scale          H. plates of rock that make up the earth’s crust

     

     

    01/13-14/2020 Review "What is Soil

    What Is Soil? Soils are made up of minerals, water, air, organic matter and countless organisms. Soils are dynamic and always changing! Soil is vital to life on earth. • Soils provide the medium for growing all kinds of plants. • Soils provide a habitat for animals and organisms that live in the soil – which accounts for most of the living things on Earth! • Soils emit and absorb gases (such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor) and dust. • Soils absorb, hold, release, alter and purify most of the water in terrestrial systems. • Soils process recycled nutrients, including carbon, so that living things can use them over and over again. This is often done in partnership with living organisms. • Soils act as a living filter to clean water before it moves into an aquifer. • Soils serve as engineering support for construction of foundations, roadbeds, dams and buildings, and serve as support against erosion.

    Standards:H.E.3A.7 Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the factors that affect the rate of weathering.

    Standards: H.E.3A.6 Develop and use models to explain how various rock formations on the surface of Earth result from geologic processes (including weathering, erosion, deposition, and glaciation).

    Learning Objectives: • Develop a basic understanding of soil composition. • Understand that soil is made up of minerals, water, air and organic matter. • Identify six different types of soil by sight and feel. • Know characteristics of the different types of soil and which are best for cultivation of certain crops. • Learn more about the organisms that live in soil and their role in keeping soil healthy. • Understand how soil sustains life in an ecosystem and why soil is essential to life.

    • Students will understand how varying amounts of sand, silt, and clay will affect a soil's "Texture" or name.
    • Students will develop an understanding of a soil's advantages or limitations based on the amounts of sand and clay in the soil.
    • Students will demonstrate how to plot a soil's texture on a soil triangle.

    Prior Knowledge: Students should know that plants need water, and nutrients from soil, gathered trough their roots in order to live and grow. They should also know about food webs and life cycles.

    UNIT PLAN

    01/06-17/2020 Soil and Soil Dynamics

     

    01/06: VIDEO REVIEW

     

    H.E.3A.6 Develop and use models to explain how various rock formations on the surface of Earth result from geologic processes (including weathering, erosion, deposition, and glaciation).

    H.E.3A.8 Analyze and interpret data of soil from different locations to compare the major physical components of soil (such as the amounts of sand, silt, clay, and humus) as evidence of Earth processes in that region producing each type of soil.

    Soil

    The soil is sketched and labeled.
    Sketch and picture of soil.
    Topic: What is soil? and Why is it important? Through this lesson students will be given an overview of soil and discover that healthy soils are part of a larger system that is both complex and truly alive. They will explore why soils are critical to all life on Earth.
    Standards:HE-2A.2: Analyze geoscience data to make the claim that one change to Earth’s surface can create feedbacks that cause changes to other Earth systems.

    Students will learn:
    • Soil is the top, thin layer of earth.
    • Soil is comprised of inorganic matter formed from the breakdown of rock, along with decomposing organic matter. It is also home to millions of living organisms.
    • Soil is key for growing food, cleaning water and air, and providing a habitat for living organisms of all shapes and sizes.
    • Disruption of soil life can lead to devastating results.
    SWBAT: 1. Define soil and understand the importance of soil. 2. Explain why plants need soil. 3. Be familiar with how soil layers are formed. 4. Explain moisture retention capabilities of the three major soil particles. 5. List and describe functions of soil. 6. Describe ways soil can be enriche
    Problem statement: What is soil and why is soil important?

    Soil is a combination of air, water, minerals, and organic matter that forms at the transition between biosphere and geosphereSoil is made when weathering breaks down bedrock and turns it into sediment.  If erosion does not remove the sediment significantly, organisms can access the mineral content of the sediments.  These organisms turn minerals, water, and atmospheric gases into organic substances that contribute to the soil.

    Soil is an important reservoir for organic components necessary for plants, animals, and microorganisms to live. The organic component of soil, called humus, is a rich source of bioavailable nitrogen. Nitrogen is the most common element in the atmosphere, but it exists in a form most life forms are unable to use. Special bacteria found only in soil provide most nitrogen compounds that are usable, bioavailable, by life forms.

    The image shows the way nitrogen can move around, mostly in the soil
    Schematic of the nitrogen cycle.

    These nitrogen-fixing bacteria absorb nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it into nitrogen compounds. These compounds are absorbed by plants and used to make DNA, amino acids, and enzymes. Animals obtain bioavailable nitrogen by eating plants, and this is the source of most of the nitrogen used by life. That nitrogen is an essential component of proteins and DNA. Soils range from poor to rich, depending on the amount of humus they contain. Soil productivity is determined by water and nutrient content. Freshly created volcanic soils, called andisols, and clay-rich soils that hold nutrients and water are examples of productive soils.

    A mountain slope has been made into artificial steps form farming.
    Agricultural terracing, as made by the Inca culture from the Andes, helps reduce erosion and promote soil formation, leading to better farming practices.

    The nature of the soil, meaning its characteristics, is determined primarily by five components: 1) the mineralogy of the parent material; 2) topography, 3) weathering, 4) climate, and 5) the organisms that inhabit the soil. For example, soil tends to erode more rapidly on steep slopes so soil layers in these areas may be thinner than in flood plains, where it tends to accumulate. The quantity and chemistry of organic matter of soil affects how much and what varieties of life it can sustain. Temperature and precipitation, two major weathering agents, are dependent on climate. Fungi and bacteria contribute organic matter and the ability of soil to sustain life, interacting with plant roots to exchange nitrogen and other nutrients [5].

    In well-formed soils, there is a discernable arrangement of distinct layers called soil horizons [6]. These soil horizons can be seen in road cuts that expose the layers at the edge of the cut. Soil horizons make up the soil profile. Each soil horizon reflects climate, topography, and other soil-development factors, as well as its organic material and mineral sediment composition. The horizons are assigned names and letters. Differences in naming schemes depend on the area, soil type or research topic. The figure shows a simplified soil profile that uses commonly designated names and letters.

    The image shows 5 soil layers, ranging from highly altered at the top, to unaltered at the bottom.
    A simplified soil profile, showing labeled layers.

    O Horizon: The top horizon is a thin layer of predominantly organic material, such as leaves, twigs, and other plant parts that are actively decaying into humus.

    A Horizon: The next layer, called topsoil, consists of humus mixed with mineral sediment. As precipitation soaks down through this layer, it leaches out soluble chemicals. In wet climates with heavy precipitation this leaching out produces a separate layer called horizon E, the leaching or eluviation zone.

    B Horizon: Also called subsoil, this layer consists of sediment mixed with humus removed from the upper layers. The subsoil is where mineral sediment is chemically weathered. The amount of organic material and degree of weathering decrease with depth. The upper subsoil zone, called regolith, is a porous mixture of humus and highly weathered sediment. In the lower zone, saprolite, scant organic material is mixed with largely unaltered parent rock.

    C Horizon: This is substratum and is a zone of mechanical weathering. Here, bedrock fragments are physically broken but not chemically altered. This layer contains no organic material.

    R Horizon: The final layer consists of unweathered, parent bedrock and fragments.

    The outside of the rock is tan and weathered, the inside is grey.
    A sample of bauxite. Note the unweathered igneous rock in the center.

    The United States governing body for agriculture, the USDA, uses a taxonomic classification to identify soil types, called soil orders. Xoxisols or laterite soils are nutrient-poor soils found in tropical regions. While poorly suited for growing crops, xosisols are home to most of the world’s mineable aluminum ore (bauxite). Ardisol forms in dry climates and can develop layers of hardened calcite, called caliche. Andisols originate from volcanic ash deposits. Alfisols contain silicate clay minerals. These two soil orders are productive for farming due to their high content of mineral nutrients. In general, color can be an important factor in understanding soil conditions. Black soils tend to be anoxic, red oxygen-rich, and green oxygen-poor (i.e. reduced). This is true for many sedimentary rocks as well.

    The black and white photo shows a giant wall of dust.
    A dust storm approaches Stratford, Texas in 1935.

    Not only is soil essential to terrestrial life in nature, but also human civilization via agriculture. Careless or uninformed human activity can seriously damage soil’s life-supporting properties. A prime example is the famous Dust Bowl disaster of the 1930s, which affected the midwestern United States. The damage occurred because of large-scale attempts develop prairieland in southern Kansas, Colorado, western Texas, and Oklahoma into farmland [7]. Poor understanding of the region’s geology, ecology, and climate led to farming practices that ruined the soil profile.

    The prairie soils and native plants are well adapted to a relatively dry climate. With government encouragement, settlers moved in to homestead the region. They plowed vast areas of prairie into long, straight rows and planted grain. The plowing broke up the stable soil profile and destroyed the natural grasses and plants, which had long roots that anchored the soil layers. The grains they planted had shallower root systems and were plowed up every year, which made the soil prone to erosion. The plowed furrows were aligned in straight rows running downhill, which favored erosion and loss of topsoil.

    The local climate does not produce sufficient precipitation to support non-native grain crops, so the farmers drilled wells and over-pumped water from the underground aquifers. The grain crops failed due to lack of water, leaving bare soil that was stripped from the ground by the prairie winds. Particles of midwestern prairie soil were deposited along the east coast and as far away as Europe. Huge dust storms called black blizzards made life unbearable, and the once-hopeful homesteaders left in droves. The setting for John Steinbeck’s famous novel and John Ford’s film, The Grapes of Wrath, is Oklahoma during this time. The lingering question is whether we have learned the lessons of the dust bowl, to avoid creating it again [8].

     

    LESSON 2: 

    In this lesson, students will gather evidence for surface weathering, erosion, and deposition by exploring particular locations on an interactive map of geologic features in North America. They will then use the gathered evidence to construct explanations for how these geoscience phenomena shape Earth’s surface features at varying time and spatial scales. Students will come to the conclusion that these processes have occurred throughout Earth’s history and are ongoing today.

    PowerPoint Click to download the MS Powerpoint file (9.6 Mbytes).

    Standards:H.E.3A.7 Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the factors that affect the rate of weathering.

    Standards: H.E.3A.6 Develop and use models to explain how various rock formations on the surface of Earth result from geologic processes (including weathering, erosion, deposition, and glaciation).

    SWBAT: analyze geological features for evidence of surface weathering, erosion, and deposition.

    SWBAT:  construct explanations for how different geoscience processes have shaped and continue to shape Earth’s surface.

    SWBAT:  recognize the processes that cause weathering and erosion.

    SWBAT:  identify the similarities and differences between weathering and erosion.

    SWBAT:  identify the various effects of weathering and erosio

    Guiding Questions: 
    1. Guiding questions are posted on the board prior to commencement of lesson. With the objective in mind, students are introduced to the following questions.

      • How does physical and chemical weathering change Earth's surface over time?
        • Physical weathering breaks down rock on Earth's surface physically whereas chemical weathering breaks down the rocks by changing the material that makes up the rock.
      • How does erosion change Earth's surface overtime?
        • Erosion moves the small pieces of rock or sediments from one place to another through gravity, wind, water, or ice. This will allow for settlement of new rock.
      • How does deposition benefit the Earth's surface?
        • As deposits of sediment settle they mix with small pieces of animal and plant remains allowing for soil formation.

     Teaching Phase: 

    1. Teacher will go over the Venn Diagram during a class discussion.
    2. Show a Weathering and Erosion Video.
      • Students will take notes in their science notebooks.
      • After the video, teacher will have a class discussion. Sample questions below:
        • What is involved in physical weathering?
          • The breaking or wearing down of rock.
        • Give an example of erosion.
          • Sediments being carried in a stream, glacier moving sediment, waterfalls transporting sediments.
        • What happens when weathering and erosion work together?
          • It reshapes Earth's surface.
    3. Teacher will present a PowerPoint showing example of weathering and erosion.
      • Please refer to the teacher notes in Power Point Presentation, Earth's Processes pictures.
    4. Before the lab activity begins, the teacher will organize students into groups of three to four students.
      • Lab activity handouts will be passed out to each student.
      • The teacher will go over the lab activity instructions with the entire class.
      • The teacher will model the lab activities before the students begin the lab activity.
      • Please refer to Earth Processes Lab Activity.
    • Guided Practice: 

      1. Weathering and Erosion Lab activity will be modeled by the teacher the Earth Processes Lab Activity handout.
      2. Before beginning activities the teacher will:
        • Arrange students into groups of 3-4 students.
        • Highlight the materials on the activity.
        • Review the directions with the students.
      3. The teacher will model and explain each activity before they start.
        • Activity A teacher will gather materials (sugar cubes, water, droppers,andstyrofoam plate)
          • Fill the dropper with water.
          • Hold the dropper above the sugar cubes and begin dropping water onto sugar cubes.
          • Record data and observations in journal.
        • Activity B teacher will gather materials (sugar granules from activity A,styrofoam plate, and straw)
          • Teacher will demonstrate erosion by blowing the sugar granules with straw.
          • Record observation on journal.
        • Activity C teacher will gather materials (Alka-Seltzer tablet, beaker, vinegar,andstyrofoam plate)fet
          • Fill the dropper with vinegar.
          • Hold the dropper above the Alka-Seltzer tablet and begin dropping the vinegar onto the Alka-Seltzer tablet
          • Record data and observations in journal.
      4. After lab activities have been modeled the students may begin their labs and teacher will walk around to make sure the students are on task and following directions.

      Safety Tip: Please have the students wear their apron, goggles, and follow the Lab Safety rules.

    • Independent Practice: (activities / exercises  students will complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?

      1. Students will perform lab activities as the teacher circulates around the room.
      2. As students perform lab activities observations and results will be written in their journals.
      3. After the lab activity is completed, students will answer questions on post-lab activity questions worksheet (Earth Processes Lab Questions  Earth Processes Lab Answer Sheet).
      4. The post lab questions will be completed by each individual student and not as a group.
    • Closure: 

      As a group, students will answer three questions as a closure.

      1. Teacher will use the Claim, Evidence, Reasoning document.
      2. Teachers should guide students on how to write their CER (Claim/Evidence/Reasoning).
      3. Please refer to Claim, Evidence, Reasoning, Student, Sample as a guide to assist students.
    • Summative Assessment

      1. Teacher will pass out the post-lab activity worksheet to each individual student after performing the lab activity.
      2. This is an individual assignment so the students will be working on their own and using their notes and journals as a reference guide.

      Earth Processes Lab Questions.docx

      Earth Processes Lab Answer Sheet.docx

    • Formative Assessment

      1. At the beginning of the lesson, the teacher will go over the Venn Diagram. Some questions to solicit prior knowledge are:
        • How does erosion occur?
          • Erosion can occur after a rainstorm.
        • How does weathering occur?
          • Overtime precipitation, wind, and heat from the sun breaks down rock.
        • Is there a relationship between weathering and erosion?
          • Yes, they both help reshape Earth's surface.
      2. During the lab have a discussion with the students.
        • What do the sugar cubes represents?
          • The sugar cubes represent rocks.
        • What does the water represent?
          • The water represents rain that erodes and weathers the rocks.
        • What do the sugar granules represent?
          • The sugar granules represent broken down rock or sediment.
          • Students may also respond that it represents deposition.
        • In activity C: What does theAlka-Seltzer tablets and the vinegar represent?
          • The Alka-Seltzer represents big rocks and the vinegar represents acid rain.
      3. During the lab students will also be writing down their observations and results on their individual journals.
    • Feedback to Students

      1. During the lesson students will get feedback on their responses to the discussion questions (above).
        • Observations should include:
          • As water is dropped onto sugar cubes, sugar cubes break apart into granules.
          • As granules are blown through straws they move from one place to another.
          • As vinegar is dropped onto Alka-Seltzer tablet the tablet starts to dissolve and fizz.
      2. Students will also turn in their journals which will be reviewed for observation accuracy.
      3. Teacher feedback will then be written in their journals. Some responses might be:
        • That was a good observation on the reaction of Alka-Seltzer with vinegar.

    ACCOMMODATIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

    • Accommodations:
      1. Students with special needs will draw their observations and results.
        • Students will also be alotted additional time.
        • ESOL students will be provided a dictionary.
      2. Students will be paired with other students to assist with activity.
        • Low academic be paired with middle/high performing students.

    • Extensions:

      A possible extension to this lesson would be for the students to write a paragraph on how Earth is reshaped using the processes learned in this lesson (physical and chemical weathering, erosion, and deposition).


    • Suggested Technology: Computer for Presenter, Interactive Whiteboard, LCD Projector

    •  Special Materials Needed:

       Materials per group include:

      • 2 Styrofoam plates
      • 2 straws
      • 1/4 cup of distilled vinegar
      • 1 cup of water
      • 2 droppers
      • 2 Alka-Seltzer tablets
      • 1 beaker
      • 2 cups
      • 2 sugar cubes
      • colored pencils
      • dictionary
    Surface Processes Summary Notes

     


    Weathering

    Mechanical weathering: breaks rocks down into smaller and smaller pieces through physical means such as frost wedging, root wedging, unloading, salt crystal growth, abrasion. Minerals remain unchanged.
    Chemical weathering: changes the minerals into new minerals and dissolved ions.
    acidification of water: carbon dioxide from the atmosphere dissolves in surface water (raindrops, streams, lakes); carbon dioxide chemically combines with water to form carbonic acid -> most natural surface waters are slightly acidic!
    hydrolysiscarbonic acid in water reacts with most silicate minerals (except quartz); the silicate mineral breaks down into 1) a clay mineral, 2) metal cations in solution, 3) soluble silica
    dissolution: carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite) react with carbonic acid and totally dissolve (no solid particles remain)

     


    Soil

    Soils are formed as a result of weathering of bedrock, biological processes that mix organic matter in with the mineral regolith in the upper horizons, and downward leaching of fine particles and soluble ions
    A typical soil profile contains (below):
    O-Horizon: decaying organic matter; upper couple inches
    A-Horizon: organic rich, fines and solubles are leached out of A into B below
    B-Horizon: organic poor, enriched in fines and solubles leached from A
    C-Horizon: mineral soil - regolith - physically and chemically weathered rock
    Bedrock

     


    Mass Wasting

    The downhill movement of soil and regolith is due to the force of gravity and is resisted by the force of friction. The forces of gravity and friction are in balance at the angle of repose - the maximum slope angle that unconsolidated materials can maintain. Water can reduce the friction and increase the mass (therefore the gravitational force), thereby reducing the angle of repose and causing mass wasting.
    Forms of mass wasting include soil creep, earthflows, mudflows, slumps, and landslides.
    Undercutting slopes for road building and house sites and removal of vegetation by fires, etc may induce mass wasting.

     


    Groundwater Resources

    In the hydrologic cycle precipitation = runoff + evapotranspiration + infiltration
    which means that the water that falls to the ground in the form of rain, snow, etc will either soak into the groundwater, runoff into surface streams, or be evaporated from the surface or transpired through plant leaves.
    The water that infiltrates the ground will percolate (seep) downward through porous and permeable soil, sediment, and rock until it reaches an impermeable unit.
    Porous means having void spaces between grains; permeable means the voids are connected so water can pass through.
    Porous and permeable materials include soil (if not too clay rich), sand, sandstone, limestone, fractured igneous and metamorphic rock, vesicular basalt and scoria.
    Impermeable and/or non-porous materials include clay, shale, non-fractured igneous and metamorphic rocks.
    Porous/permeable layers are called aquifers; impermeable layers called aquicludes.
    In an unconfined aquifer the zone of saturation (all voids filled with water) lies above an aquiclude. The top of the zone of saturation is called the water table. Above this is the zone of aeration, where the voids are filled with air, though grains may be wet or coated with water.
    Pumping a well in an unconfined aquifer can lower the water table in a cone-shaped pattern around the well because it takes time for water to seep between grains. The total amount the water level drops in the well is called the drawdown. The area affected by the pumping is called the cone of depression
    In a confined aquifer aquicludes or confining units lie above and below the permeable aquifer units. The level to which water rises in a well tapping a confined aquifer is called the potentiometric surface. In most confined aquifers the water is under pressure (water rises above the top of the aquifer in a well). This condition is known as artesian. A flowing artesian aquifer (well) is one in which the water in a well flows to the surface because the potentiometric surface is above the land surface.
    Near the coast a lens of fresh groundwater lies above more dense saltwater. Saltwater intrusion occurs where too much freshwater is pumped out of the ground and is replaced by brackish and eventually saltwater.
    Groundwater pollution may occur where toxic materials are dumped (eg. at a landfill). Rainwater leaches toxic chemicals from the dumped materials and percolates down to the water table. The toxic-laden groundwater may contaminate local wells. Proper landfills are now designed with impermeable liners and caps.

     


    Steam Processes

    Streams carry dissolved ions as dissolved load, fine clay and silt particles as suspended load, and coarse sands and gravels as bed load.
    Stream velocity is the speed of the water in the stream.
    Stream discharge is the quantity (volume) of water passing by a given point in an amount of time.
    Stream competence is the largest size particle a stream can carry. Stream competence depends on stream velocity. The faster the current, the larger the particle that can be moved.
    Stream capacity is the maximum amount of solid load (bed and suspended) a stream can carry. It depends on both the discharge and the velocity.

    Braided Stream patterns are found where there is a very large bed load where there is either a high sediment supply or the stream lies on a loose, unconsolidated bed of sand and gravel. In braided streams the stream does not occupy a single channel but the flow is diverted into many separate ribbons of water with sand bars between.

    Meandering Streams
    At a bend in a stream the water's momentum carries most of the force of the water against the outer bank. This excess force gouges out a deeper channel on the outer bank. The greater depth on the outer side of the bend leads to higher velocity at the outer bank (because the greater depth reduces the average friction). The inner bank remains shallower, increasing friction, thereby reducing the velocity.
    Where the depth and velocity of the water on the outer bank increase so do the competence and capacity. Erosion occurs on the outer bank or cut bank.
    Where velocity of the water on the inner bank decreases so do the competence and capacity. Deposition occurs, leading to the formation of a point bar.
    Over time, the position of the stream changes as the bend migrates in the direction of the cut bank.
    As bends accentuate and migrate, two bends can erode together forming a cutoff and leaving an oxbow lake.

    Stream Valley Evolution
    Youthful Stream Valleys
     have steep-sloping, V-shaped valleys and little or no flat land next to the stream channel in the valley bottom.
    Mature Stream Valleys have gentle slopes and a flood plain; the meander belt width equals the flood plain width.
    Old Age Stream Valleys have very subdued topography and very broad flood plains; the flood plain width is greater than the meander belt width.

     


    Shore Processes

    The shoreline is effected by waves (produced by wind at sea) and tides (produced by the gravitational effect of the moon and sun).
    As a wave approaches the shore it slows down from drag on the bottom when water depth is less than half the distance between two wave crests. The waves get closer together and taller. Eventually the bottom of the wave slows drastically and the wave topples over as a breaker.
    As a wave crashes on the shore, the water pushes sediment up the beach and then pulls it back down the beach as the water slides back down. If the waves do not come in parallel to the beach longshore transport (littoral drift) of sand occurs.
    When waves approach the beach at an angle, the part of the wave that reaches shallow water earliest slows down the most, allowing the part of the wave that is farther offshore to catch up. In this way the wave is refracted (bent) so that it crashes on the shore more nearly parallel to the shore. You will never see a wave wash up on a beach at a very high angle from the line of the beach accept perhaps at an inlet or where the shore makes a sudden right angle bend. This wave refraction focuses wave energy around a headland and diffuses it in a bay. Headlands are areas with rough surf and rapid erosion. Bays have quiet water (good for ship moorings) and are sites of deposition (nice sandy beaches).
    Groins are structures built out from the shore at a right angle to the beach in an attempt to stop longshore sand transport. They hold the sand on the upcurrent side of the groin but the downcurrent side of groins faces enhanced erosion because sand transport from upcurrent is halted.
    Seawalls are structures built parallel to the beach to protect buildings. When storm waves strike a seawall, the unspent wave energy is reflected back offshore. This is good for the building, but that extra energy carries sand offshore. Result: the beach is gone. The seawall will eventually be undermined and the building washed away if the sand is not replenished. In the meantime there is no beach for recreation.

     


    Glaciers

    Where summer melting is less than the winter snowfall, the annual addition of snow results in the growth of a glacier. Snow is "fluffy" but its frilly appendages are broken through blowing, partial melting and refreezing, and through compaction, as more layers of snow are added above. Through these processes snowflakes become ice granules called firn. As time passes and compaction continues, the firn recrystallizes into solid ice - an interlocking network of ice crystals (like an igneous texture). Glacial ice is blue.
    Ice is brittle (breaks when under stress) at its surface, but under pressure (under 50 meters of ice) it behaves plastically (it flows under stress). Glaciers are flowing streams of ice.
    The upper brittle surface of a glacier forms large open cracks known as crevasses as the glacier bends to flow over a bump in the bedrock.
    Grit and gravel and even large boulders are incorporated into the base of a glacier which grind away at the bedrock over which the glacier flows, resulting in glacial striations. Glacial striations show the direction the glacier flowed.
    At the end of a glacier, where it is melting as fast as it is being supplies by ice from upstream, large quantities of unsorted sediments (clay, silt, sand, gravel, boulders) are heaped into moraines.
    During glacial epochs like the last few million years, continental ice sheets advance and retreat from the polar regions over time spans of tens of thousands of years. These glacial cycles are caused by variations of the Earth's orbit around the sun which changes the amount of solar radiation coming into the Earth at high latitudes during the summer. Continental ice sheets leave behind features such as drumlinseskers, and kettle lakes.
    Apine glaciers descend from high, cold mountain peaks cutting deep U-shaped valleys. At the head of the glacier a deep bowl, called a cirque, is cut by the grinding action of the glacier. Many cirques are filled by small lakes called tarns when the glaciers melt Hanging valleys, many with beautiful waterfalls, are formed where smaller tributary glaciers once fed into large, deep-cutting, glaciers.

     


    Aeolian (Wind) Processes and Deserts

    In arid regions the soil/sediment is dry so there is no cohesion between particles and there is little vegetation to cover and hold the particles in place. The wind is then a very important agent for transporting and depositing sediments.
    The wind can bounce sand along the surface in a process called saltation. Sand is blown up a shallow incline on the windward face of a sand dune and then is deposited on the steep slip face of the dune away from the wind.
    Gravel and rocks are not moved by the wind and remain behind as a desert pavement. The process of removing the clay, silt, and sand and leaving behind the rocks is called deflation.
    Sandy deserts are called ergs. Rocky deserts are called regs.
    The wind can suspend fine clay and silt particles as windblown dust, perhaps as dust storms. Downwind deposits of windblown dust are called loess.

     

    Preview Video for Soil Unit: Sahara Desert Animals National Geographic Documentary HD

    Monday, 12/16- Exams (4th period) instructions, finish review

    Tuesday, 12/17-Exams (1st & 5th) review for exams, HW: finish review for exam

    Wednesday, 12/18-Exams (2nd & 6th) A, B, review C and D, turn in review

    Thursday, 12/19-Exams  (3rd & 7th) C, D, review E and F, turn in review

    Friday 12/20-Exams over Have a great holiday!

     

    Study Guide for Midterm

    Study Guide for Midterm

    Exam Review

    ..... Section 7.3 Study Guide ... Short Answer & Review

    Practice: Read the following triple beam scales and determine the masses. Triple Beam Balances measure in grams. 

     

    12/09/2019 to 12/13/2019

     Cell Phone Policy for Room 209: Possession and use of personal telecommunications devices, including mobile telephones and or smart watches during any class assignment or testing is prohibited. Students will not be permitted to display, turn on, or use a telecommunications device, including a cellular telephone, or other electronic device during any class activity or testing in room 209.

    Texting and videotaping are not permitted anytime during any class activity or testing.

    Failure to follow these guidelines will result in the student receiving the grade of “0” for that class activity or test. This policy is in effect throughout the school year.

     

     

    11/26/2019 Objective: Grade Recovery

    The purpose of grade recovery program is to strengthen students' skills in weak areas and give them the opportunity to focus on difficult subjects and skip repetitious material they've already mastered.

    11/25/2019 to 11/26/2019

     
    ROCK IDENTIFICATION - ACTIVITY 
    Standards: 5.8, 5.1, 4.8, 4.1, 3.1
    Guiding Question: How can the features and characteristics of rocks be used to identify them?
    Rationale: In this investigation students further use their observation skills and perform simple tests on a set of common rock samples.
    Objectives: It is expected that students should be able to:
    • Make precise observations of visible rock characteristics.
    • Apply basic rock identification techniques to describe common rocks.
    • Chart qualitative information accurately in a given format
    • Compare and contrast observations of actual rock samples to a chart of rock characteristics and properties.
    • Deduce basic rock identification based on observed and tested properties and charted information.
    Key Concepts: The concepts developed in this activity include the following:
    • The overall size of the particles that make up a rock determines its texture.
    • If the particles are too small to be seen with the naked eye, the rock is said to have a very fine texture.
    • Color in the same rock type can vary from sample to sample.
    Color can be a deceptive characteristic for identifying rocks. Overall rock color depends on the rock’s mineral composition and texture.
     
    Vocabulary: • Calcite • Foliation • Fossil • Igneous • Metamorphic • Mineral • Quartz • Sedimentary
     
     
     
    Rock Unit
    Rock Classification & The Rock Cycle

    Objectives

    Students will be able to describe the rock cycle and use it to identify types of rocks. Students will associate rock and water cycle through processes like erosion, soil formation. Lithosphere provides structure for water sheds, and filters/storage of water. Water sheds provide transports of soil/soil nutrients.

    Standards:

    Standard: ES 8.3.1.3.2.

    ES.6.5B Recognize that a limited number of the many known elements comprise the largest portion of solid Earth, living matter, oceans, and the atmosphere.

    ES.6.6C Test the physical properties of minerals including hardness, color, luster, and streak

    ES.6.10B Classify rocks as metamorphic, igneous, or sedimentary by the processes of their formation.

     
    Students will be able to:
    1. Differentiate among the three types of rock by referring to their methods of formation, providing real-world scenarios as examples.
    2. Recognize that some geologic processes are instantaneous, and others extremely gradual.
    3. Describe which processes might be affecting a given region, using evidence from natural features present on a map.
    Prior Knowledge

    This activity is best conducted as a review of what students have learned previously about the three types of rocks involved in the rock cycle. The language used on game cards also provides ample opportunity to reinforce scientific terms related to a unit studying the make-up of Earth’s layers.

    Introduction
    1. Frame the lesson with these essential questions:

      What type of rocks do we find beneath our school: sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic?
      What types of rocks might we find beneath our schools in ten thousand years?

    Using both maps, and drawing on their new knowledge of the geologic processes, discuss the following:

    Where are most sedimentary rocks found? Why do we find them there? Sedimentary rocks are found where water is currently located or was located in the past. For example, ocean waves break down rocks. They may not know that the Central Valley used to be a large lake.

    Where are most igneous rocks found? Why do we find them there? Igneous rocks formed where volcanoes and magma pushed through the Earth’s crust and caused rocks to melt and reform. This has happened on the eastern edge of the state, near what is now the Sierra Nevada.

    Where are most metamorphic rocks found? Why do we find them there? Metamorphic rocks formed where other rocks were caught between colliding tectonic plates and/or growing mountains.

    Which are the oldest rocks? Why do you think so

     

    Extensions

    Assign students the task of finding a rock cycle diagram that best exemplifies their understanding of the process. Have them post it in their journal and explain the reasoning for their selection.

    For students already familiar with experimental design, consider running a duplicate set of jars with more sterile potted soil. Or, have groups manage their own setup, with variables controlled at the class level, to add replicate trials, share collective data, and discuss fair tests.

    Scientific Terms for Students

    Earth's Layers

    crust: the thin layer of solid rock that forms Earth’s outer surface

    mantle: the thick layer of hot, dense, rocky matter found below the Earth’s crust and surrounding the Earth’s core

    magma: the molten material beneath or within the Earth’s crust, from which igneous rock is formed

    lava: liquid magma that reaches the Earth’s surface
     

    Geologic Processes

    weathering: the chemical and physical processes that break down rocks exposed to air, moisture, and organic matter at Earth’s surface

    erosion: the process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered rock or soil

    fault: a break or crack in the Earth’s crust along which rocks move

    subduction: the process by which the collision of two plates in Earth’s crust results in one plate being drawn back down into the mantle
     

    The Rock Cycle

    rock cycle: a series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another

    igneous rock: a type of rock that forms from the cooling and hardening of magma or lava

    metamorphic rock: a type of rock that forms when a rock has had its mineral composition and/or texture changed by heat and pressure

    sedimentary rock: a type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks, or the remains of plants and animals, are pressed and cemented together

    Check For Understanding
    Their notebook entry should include:

    • At least 3 transformations listing the type of rock at beginning and end
    • Clear written descriptions of the processes
    • Labeling of the relative duration of each event (e.g., "instantaneous" to "millions of years" or "fastest" to "slowest")
     
     
    During this Unit SWBAT:
     
    Students should be able to identify different types of rocks by organizing them based on analysis and classification as well as give a short description of how the rock was formed by understanding the Rock Cycle.
     
     
    Student will have an understanding of the rocks around them and be able to compare them to one another by understanding their characteristics as well as how and where they were formed.
     
    SWBAT: Classify and identify rocks and minerals using characteristics including, but not limited to , density, hardness and streak for minerals, and texture and composition for rocks.”
     
    Skill Level
    Students from all levels of thinking skills should be able to perform the activities. If they haven’t already, students
    will be able to develop the following thinking skills:
    Description and observation of nature
    Correlation
    Classification
    Organize and analyze data
    Drawing and applying conclusions
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    &
    “The student will relate rock composition and texture to physical conditions at the
    time of formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock.”
    Benchmark
    8.3.1.3.3.
    Prerequisite Units:
    C
    oncept of m
    inerals
    and plate tectonic boundaries.
    Students und
    erstand that rocks
    are made up of minerals and they know how to classify minerals. Students also
    understand the different types of boundaries and earth processes like temperature
    and pressure vary at those boundaries.
    Summary of Students’ initial concept
    ions:
    1)
    There are hundred of different kinds of rocks because they all look different.
    2)
    The only way ro
    cks can change is from erosion, but it will still be the same
    kind of rock forever.
    Addressing students’ initial conceptions
    :
    (where when how in lesson?)
    The
    teacher’s
    role is to change the students thi
    nking by presenting data so
    students
    can revise their thinking.
    1)
    Students will be asked to organize the rocks by observable
    characteristics,
    which will be done to engage the students. Their conceptions should
    be
    adjusted when they discuss about the activity in their groups.
    2)
    Students will observe and see examples of change in composition when
    variables such as temperature and pressure change and be able to apply this
    to the concept of rocks.
    Sample Unit Sched
    ule
    :
    WEEK ONE:
    Monday
    -
    Engage 1: Sort rock collection into groups. Explore 1
    A
    : Classify
    different groups
    Tuesday
    -
    Explain 1
    A
    : Introduce the three types of rocks.
    Wednesday
    -
    Elaborate 1A: Treasure Hunt Activity.
    Thursday
    -
    Explore 1B: Sedimentary
    Rocks. Explain 1B: Sedimentary
    characteristics. Elaborate 1B: Create concept sketch and add details to
    sedimentary rocks.
    Friday
    -
    Explore 1C: Igneous Rocks. Explain 1C: Igneous characteristics.
    Elaborate 1C: Add to concept sketch.
    WEEK TWO:
    Monday
    -
    Explore 1D: Metamorphic Rocks. Explain 1D: Metamorphic
    characteristics. Elaborate 1D: Add to concept sketch.
    Tuesday
    -
    Evaluate 1: Quiz on identifying rock samples.
    Wednesday
    -
    Engage 2:
    Pop Rocks & Gum
    demonstration. Explore 2A: Dice
    activity.
    Thursday
    -
    Explain 2A: The Rock Cycle. Elaborate 2A:
    Begin Virtual Field Trip
    Friday
    -
    Elaborate 2A:
    Finish
    Virtual field trip. Evaluate 2
    -
    Quiz on the rock
    cycle.
     
     
    Terms and Concepts to be
    covered
    :
    Sedimentary, Metamorphic, Igneous, The Rock Cycle, Magma, Sedimen
    ts, Erosion,
    Weathering, heat and pressure, cooling, melting, lithification (compaction and
    cementation)
    Sample Quiz Question
    :
    Classify the rock. What kind of rock is it? What other disti
    nguishable features are
    present (mineral composition, texture,
    foliation, grain size, color index, parent rock,
    etc.)?
    Picture was taken from Geology.com: http://geology.com/rocks/breccia.shtml
    Annotated Bibliography
    :
    Carter, S., (2010). HotChalk Lessons Plans Page.
    The Rock Cycle.
    Retrieved from
    http://www.lessonplanspage.com/ScienceTheRockCycleWithGumAndPopRoc
    ks38.htm
    This website article provided the pop rocks and gum activity used for the Engage
    stage of the Rock Cycle lesson. The article includes objectives along with thinking
    levels addressed
    .
    Kortz,
    K.M.,
    "Alternative conceptions of introductory geoscience students and a
    method to decrease them" (2009).
    ETD Collection for University of Rhode
    Island.
    Paper AAI3367995.
    Retrieved from
    http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1852723231&Fmt=14&VType=
    PQD&
    VInst=PROD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1291513085&clientId=79356
    This article discusses that geoscience instructors should try to focus less on lecture
    -
    styled lessons. Kortz also discusses some students
    misconceptions about geology
    and suggests ways to fix it
    . This particular article focused on the research that
    indicates that students view rocks as objects independent from the processes that
    form and change them.
     
     
    Lawson, A., Musheno, B. (1999) Effect of Learning Cycle on
    Traditional Te
    xt on
    Comprehension of
    Science
    Concepts by Students at
    Different Reasoning
    Abilities.
    Journal of Research in Science Teaching.
    This journal explains the research that has found the learning cycle to be very
    effective for science instruction, especially when teaching inquiry sty
    led. The
    learning cycle this piece focused on included three consecutive phases known as
    exploration, term introduction, and concept application, which is very similar to the
    cycle used in this lesson plan.
    Rocks and Minerals 4 U.
    (2006).
    What is a Rock?
    Retrieved from
    http://www.rocksandminerals4u.com/what_is_a_rock.html.
    This website provided me a lot of information about rocks in general, each type of
    rock, the rock cycle, and why rocks are so important to understand. I also obtained
    many images from this website.
    Weim
    er, R.J., and LeRoy, L.W., (1986).
    Paleozoic
    -
    Mesozoi
    c section: Red
    -
    Rocks Park, I
    -
    70 road cut, and Rooney Road, Morrison area, Jefferson County, Colorado
    , in
    Beus, S.S., ed., Centennial Field Guide Volume 2
    -
    Rocky Mountain Section of
    the Geological Society of America, p. 335
    -
    338.
    This source is where I was
    able to find the Virtual Field Trip website. This website
    was used to elaborate on the rock cycle lesson so students can see real life examples
    of rocks undergoing rock cycle processes.
    Lessons
    :
    use 5
    -
    E model
    ENGAGE
    1
    -
    How many types of rocks are there?
    :
    Divide the class into even groups of at least three students each. Give the students a
    rock collection consisting of a numerous rocks of all three types (sedimentary,
    igneous, and metamorphic). Ask the students to divide the rocks into what they
    think a
    re different types of rocks. Do not tell the students how many types of rocks
    there.
    Ask the students how many different types they came up with and to write down the
    characteristics of each group.
    EXPLORE
    1A
    -
    Identifying Rocks
    :
    Objective:
    In this activity, the students will be shown several different locations
    where rocks are created. Based off of that information, they will reorganize their
    data and come up with a new revised set of different types of rocks.
    Materials:
    Rock collection (u
    sed in Engage 1)
    Magnifying Glass
    Glass
    Streak Plate
     
     
    Nail
    Penny
    Procedure:
    1)
    Show the class the following different locations where rocks are formed:
    Beaches
    Mountains
    Rivers
    Dirt
    Bottom of the Ocean
    Near volcanoes underground
    Near Volcanoes above
    ground
    Anywhere beneath Earth’s surface
    2)
    After sharing these locations, ask the students to reorgani
    ze their data if they’d
    like to and come up with names for their “types” of rocks.
    3)
    Ask them to fill out the charts in their packets.
    They will need to list
    each rock
    and it’s characteristics and decide which “type” of rock it is.
    Sample data
    EXPLAIN
    1A
    -
    The Different Types of Rocks
    :
    4)
    Ask students to discuss their findings with the whole
    class. Generate a classroom
    discussion on the different properties their types shared in common.
    5)
    Ask them to discuss where they think specific samples were found and why.
    6)
    Guide the students into agreeing on the fact that there are three types of rocks.
    On
    ce they are able to explain the properties each type shares, introduce the
    correct vocabulary for each type: Sedimentary, Igneous, and Metamorphic.
    ELABORATE
    1A
    -
    Treasure Hunt Activity
    :
    7)
    Develop a list of different locations on school grounds where studen
    ts can
    observe and identify different rock types.
    Statue in front of office:
    Metamorphic (Marble)
    Countertops in Nurses office:
    Igneous (Granite)
    Landscaping Rock at the flagpole:
    Sedimentary (Sandstone)
    Landscaping Rock next to the picnic table
    s:
    Igneous (Andesite)
    Stairs into the main doors:
    Sedimentary (Limestone)
     
     
    *Homework: Find a rock at home and identify it.
    Try to come up with a rock name if
    possible by identifying what type it is then researching online. Bring it in to class
    tomorrow
    .
    EXPLORE
    1B
    -
    Sedimentary
    Rocks:
    Objective:
    This activity focuses solely on sedimentary rocks. Students will be able to
    identify all the different properties of sedimentary rocks. They will be introduced to
    rock names but the teacher will make it clear
    that he/she is more concerned about
    the student understanding the characteristics of the rock instead of its name.
    Knowing the rock name will be extra credit on the exam.
    Materials:
    The same rock kit as before but only the sedimentary samples
    Magnifying Glass
    Glass
    Streak Plate
    Nail
    Penny
    Procedure:
    1)
    Divide the students into groups of two.
    2)
    Ask them to observe the sedimentary rocks in front of them and divide them into
    subgroups based on observable characteristics and fill out charts
    6)
    Assign homework: Create a concept sketch showing all three different types of
    rocks (Sedimentary, Igneous, and Metamorphic). Add details on how to identify
    sedimentary rocks.
    EXPLORE
    1C
    -
    Igneous
    Rocks:
    Objective:
    This activity focuses solely on Igneous rocks. Students will be able to
    identify all the different properties of Igneous rocks. They will be introduced to rock
    names but the teacher will make it clear that he/she is more concerned about the
    student underst
    anding the characteristics of the rock instead of its name. Knowing
    the rock name will be extra credit on the exam.
    Materials:
    The same rock kit as before but only the Igneous samples
    Magnifying Glass
    Glass
    Streak Plate
    Nail
    Penny
    Procedure:
    1)
    D
    ivide the students into groups of two.
    2)
    Ask them to observe the Igneous rocks in front of them and divide them into
    subgroups based on observable characteristics and fill out charts.
    Example data:
    EXPLAIN
    1C
    -
    Igneous Rock Characteristics:
    3)
    Ask students to discuss their findings in a classroom discussion. What
    different types of Igneous rocks did they come up with? How did they classify
    them?
    4)
    Ask them to use specific Igneous samples duri
    ng discussion.
    5)
    Show them identification chart
    *
    and ask them to reorganize their data so
    there are four different ways of identifying Igneous rocks: mafic minerals,
    felsic minerals, intrusive origin, and extrusive origin.
    Also introduce students
    to the following vocabulary:
    Pegmatic
    Phaneritic
    Porphyritic
     
     
    Aphanitic
    Glassy
    Vesicular
    Pyroclastic
    ELABORATE
    1C
    -
    Add to concept sketch:
    Assign Homework: Add details on how to identify Igneous rocks.
    EXPLORE
    1D
    -
    Metamorphic
    Rocks:
    Objective:
    This activity focuses solely on Metamorphic rocks. Students will be able
    to identify all the different properties of Metamorphic rocks. They will be
    introduced to rock names but the teacher will make it clear that he/she is more
    concern
    ed about the student understanding the characteristics of the rock instead of
    its name. Knowing the rock name will be extra credit on the exam.
    Materials:
    The same rock kit as before but only the Metamorphic samples
    Magnifying Glass
    Glass
    Streak Pl
    ate
    Nail
    Penny
    Procedure:
    1)
    Divide the students into groups of two.
    2)
    Ask them to observe the Metamorphic rocks in front of them and divide them
    into subgroups based on observable characteristics and fill out charts.
    Example data:
    EXPLAIN
    1D
    -
    M
    etamorphic Rock Characteristics:
    3)
    Ask students to discuss their findings in a classroom discussion. What
    different types of Metamorphic
    rocks did they come up with? How did they
    classify them?
    4)
    Ask them to use specific Metamoprhic samples during discussion.
     
     
    5)
    Show them identification chart
    *
    and ask them to reorganize their data so
    there are three main ways of identifying metamorphic rocks:
    Foliated or
    Non
    -
    foliated and texture.
    ELABORATE
    1D
    -
    Add to concept sketch:
    Assign Homework: Add details on how to identify Metamorphic rocks.
    Final concept
    sketch on the three types of rocks and how to identify them will be due next class
    period.
    * =
    Identification charts were taken from Castle Learning Online:
    http://castlelearning.com/review/reference/earth.htm
    EVALUATE
    1
    -
    Quiz
    on rock identificatio
    n
    Solutions
    :
    Please Note: Students will be given real samples of rocks, not pictures of rocks.
    1)
    a)
    Sedimentary
    b)
    Detrital, rounded gravel, poorly sorted, large grains
    c)
    Conglomerate
    2)
    a)
    Metamorphic
    b)
    Foliated, coarse grained, high metamorphism, visible crystals alternating
    light and dark layers
    c)
    Gneiss
    3)
    a)
    Sedimentary
    b)
    Detrital, no visible grains, splits easil
    y into layers, made from mudstone
    c)
    Shale
    4)
    a)
    Igneous
    b)
    Phaneritic, slow cooling, more felsic than mafic
    c)
    Diorite
    5)
    a)
    Igneous
    b)
    Aphanitic, Very felsic
    c)
    Rhyolite
    6)
    a)
    Sedimentary
    b)
    Biochemical, shell and/or coral fragments
    c)
    Coquina
    7)
    a)
    Metamorphic
     
     
    b)
    Non
    -
    foliated, no vis
    ible grains, glassy, black and glossy, breaks along uneven
    fractures
    c)
    Anthracite Coal
    8)
    a)
    Sedimentary
    b)
    Biochemical, charcoal, black, brittle rock, sooty
    c)
    Bituminous Coal
    9)
    a)
    Igneous
    b)
    Vesicular, some bubbles, Mafic, resembles a sponge
    c)
    Scoria
    10)
    a)
    Metamorphic
    b)
    Foliated, flat well developed cleavage, dull luster, hard flat sheets
    c)
    Slate
    ENGAGE
    2
    -
    Pop Rocks & Gum
    demonstration
    :
    1)
    Take out a piece of bubble gum, hold it up and say "This represents a
    Sedimentary Rock
    ." Put it in your mouth and begin chewing it.
    2)
    Ask the students, "What am I doing?" Of course they will say chewing gum. Ask
    them to think scientifically and ask them, "What am I doing to the gum?"
    (Leading questions: Is it cold inside my mouth, NO, so I am applying heat, YES!
    What is happening when my
    teeth come down on the gum? I am applying
    pressure. So is the gum being changed? Yes!)
    3)
    Pull the gum out of your mouth and place it on a clean dish.
    4)
    Now open up a packet of "Pop Rocks" and pour some onto the gum. Then kind of
    squeeze or fold them into the
    gum. Hold up the gum and say this represents an
    Igneous Rock
    .
    5)
    Now, place the gum (igneous rock) in your mouth and chew. Ask the students:
    What am I doing? Hopeful they will answer, applying heat and pressure. Here
    pressure is more intense to crush the "P
    op Rocks" (
    crystals
    ). Chew until all the
    "Pop Rocks" are mixed in as part of the gum.
    6)
    Pull out the gum and say this represents a
    Metamorphic Rock
    .
    EXPLORE
    2A
    -
    Dice Activity:
    Objective:
    This activity allows students to actively observe the rock cycle.
    Students
    will go through a “journey” that dice direct them through and keep note of where
    they’re visiting and what processes are happening at each station. Students will be
    able to apply prior knowledge of the different types of rocks to the new concept o
    f
    The Rock Cycle.
    Materials:
    -
    9 stations with the corresponding die at each
     
     
    Procedure:
    7)
    Cut out the following dice di
    agrams, fold, and tape together
    8)
    Set up 9 stations and place one dice at each station:
    -
    Earth’s Interior
    -
    Soil
    -
    River
    -
    Ocean
    -
    Clouds
    -
    Mountains
    -
    Volcano
    9)
    Divide class into 9 groups and place one group at each station.
    10)
    As the students travel through each station, they should write down the
    journey thee dice take them through

     

     

    Wednesday: 11/13/2019

    Tuesday:  11/12/2019

    Objectives

    • Learn about the development of the periodic table of elements
    • Be able to find information about specific elements in the periodic table

     *Activity:  Students colour and label the periodic table by family as lecture progresses

    1. Introduce the periodic table by discussing its format (periods/families).
    2. Families consist of elements with similar properties due to similar electron configurations.
    3. Identify the groups on the periodic table and name them. Classify the elements as metals, non-metals or metalloids. Discuss the uniqueness of hydrogen.
      • Group 1 is also called the alkali metal group. These are strong metals that are unusually soft and very reactive toward Oxygen forming Oxides and water forming hydroxides of the metal. These elements are so reactive toward Oxygen and water vapour that they are stored under an inert liquid to protect them from Oxygen and water vapour.
      • Group 2 is called the alkaline earth metals.
      • Groups 3-12 are referred to as the transition metal groups.
      • Group 17 is referred to as the halogen group
      • Group 18 is referred to as the Noble gas group previously known as the inert gas group.
      • The metals which tend to have their atoms losing electrons during a chemical change are roughly found to the left Group 14
      • Non-metals which tend to have their atoms gaining electrons during chemical change are roughly found in Group16-17 with some elements in the lower parts of Groups 15.
      • Metalloids which tend to have their atoms sometimes losing and sometimes gaining electrons during chemical change are generally found in Groups 14-16

    Wednesday: 11/13/2019

    Objective #1: Given the terms and concepts of the organization of the periodic table, students will use Internet or library resources to research one of the elements and demonstrate knowledge of a minimum of five facts pertaining to the assigned element.

    Objective #2: Given instruction on how to create a Power Point presentation, students will use the information gathered through research about their element and create a presentation that contains a minimum of seven slides. The students will then present their findings to the class.

    Stardard: ES. 4.2: The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states.See More HS-PS1.A.2 Resources

    SWBAT: Identify the Periodic Table of the Elements interactive activity.

    SWBAT: Complete the Chemistry Scavenger Hunt

    SWBAT: Use the Earth Science Resource Pack

    SWBAT: Use the Earth Science 4D/M6A Resources 

    Checking For Understanding:
     Power point presentations will be printed and handed in for grading and evaluation. The teacher will check for the five required aspects of the research and the citation of where the information was obtained.

     

    Evaluation:
     Each power Point presentation must contain at least these five facts about the element: 1-Element symbol 2-Atomic number 3-Atomic mass 4-A diagram or picture of the electron configuration by principles energy level 5-number of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Students must cite all sources that they used to obtain their information on the last slide of the presentation.

     

    Thursday: 11/15/2019

    Goals:
     SWBAT describe the physical properties and practical use information about one of the following Element Groups: Alkali Metals, Alkaline Earth Metals, Transition Metals, Other Metals, Metalloids, Non-Metals, Halogens, Noble Gases, Rare Earth Elements.
    Objectives:
     Students will use website resources to work collaboratively in groups of 2-3 to prepare a 3 slide PowerPoint presentation on one of nine Element Groups from the Periodic Table. These lesson will require two 50 minute class periods to complete.
    Materials:
     Computer Lab with internet access and PowerPoint software.

     

    Friday 11/15/2019

    OBJECTIVES

    Students will be able to identify the physical aspects of elements

    Students will be able to correlate and apply knowledge of aspects of elements in unique and novel ways

    Students will be able to the chemical properties of elements

    Students will be able to utilize the periodic table of elements of identify key information on an individual element.

    Students will identify the common uses of an element.

    The goal is for the students to fill in the important information including the following:

    • The element I choose is called _____________________________ and it has the symbol __________ .
    • Its atomic number is _________ .
    • Its atomic mass is _________ .
    • It has a boiling point of _________ .
    • It has a melting point of _________ .
    • It has a density of _________ .
    • At standard atmospheric temperature and pressure it is found in the ____________ (solid/liquid/gas) state.
    • It is a ___________________________ (metal/non-metal/metalloid).
    • Describe as many things about its physical appearance/properties as you can.
    • Describe as many things about its chemical properties or how it reacts to other things as you can.
    • Describe as many uses for your element as you can.
    • Describe as many hazards of your element to the environment or humans as you can.

     

     

     

     

    MONDAY: 11/11/2019

    Objective: Earth Interior and Convection *Density and Convection*
    Standards: H.E.3A.1     and      H.E.3A.3 
     
    Essential Questions:?
    1. What is inside of the earth and how do we know
    2. Why do warmer objects tend to rise and why does density relate to temperature
    3. What is convection and what are convection currents
    4. What makes the earth’s tectonic plates move?
     
    Academic Vocabulary:Density, convection, convection, current, crust, mantle, outer core, inner core, seismic
    waves, tectonic plates
    Secondary Vocabulary:Lithosphere, asthenosphere
     
    Students will learn:
    1. How we know what is inside of the earth (from information obtained from seismic waves and our knowledge of
    the properties of materials)
    2. The layers of the earth and their temperatures.
    3. Temperatures influence density for most materials.
    4. Density differences can cause floating (or rising) and sinking
    5. Convection is a process of heat transfer driven by density differences that occur with differential heating and
    cooling (stability and change).
    6. Convection currents in the mantle drive plate tectonics, according to current understandings (cause and effect).
     
    Core of the Earth: Facts, Composition, Layers & Temperature
    Core of the Earth: Facts, Composition, Layers & Temperature
    The Earth's Crust: Facts, Layers, Temperature & Composition
    The Earth's Crust: Facts, Layers, Temperature & Composition
    Inner Core of the Earth: Definition, Composition & Facts
    Inner Core of the Earth: Definition, Composition & Facts
    Outer Core of the Earth: Definition, Composition & Facts
    Outer Core of the Earth: Definition, Composition & Facts
     
     
     SWBAT:
    1. Determine convection current relationships
    2. Calculate density given mass and volume.
    3. Conduct an internet investigation to find out how scientists seek for and find answers.
    4. Explain how models help us illustrate relationships that we cannot measure directly.
    5. Analyze data to make scientific claims.
    6. Communicate results.

    Objective:  In this lesson, students will learn what causes convection inside the Earth (and in everyday instances such as boiling a pot of water or in the air). They will connect their learning about convection to develop explanations about the motion of the lithospheric plates.

    Standards Addressed ES.3.6 Explain how the theory of plate tectonics accounts for the motion of the lithospheric plates, the geologic activities at the plate boundaries, and the changes in landform areas over time. ES.5A.4

    SWBAT: Construct explanations for how the theory of plate tectonics accounts for (1) the motion of lithospheric plates, (2) the geologic activities at plate boundaries, and (3) the changes in landform areas over geologic time. SWBAT: Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth's materials and the flow of energy that drives this process. SWBAT: Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions.

    Vocabulary: convection, density Materials Needed: o Article: “Convection” o Bottles of Hot and Cold Water, Food Coloring o Worksheet: Applications of Convection Assessment: Worksheet: Applications of Convection, Summary, Exit Ticket

    See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RCO90hvEL1I for a model of this demonstration. o Key Questions: “What do you think caused one bottle to mix and the other bottle to not mix? How is this similar to what happens inside the Earth?”

     Explore: o Students will read the article titled “Convection”. As students read, they should highlight key words or phrases in the text that help them answer the question “What is convection?”                                                         o After reading, students will use their highlighted words and phrases to create a GIST statement to summarize the main idea of the article. GIST statements are short summaries (20 words or less) for a selection of text.                  o They will share their GIST summaries with their group.                                                                                   Explain                                                                                                                                                           o Students will use their GIST summaries and information from the reading to complete a concept web of the information learned about convection.                                                                                                        Extend                                                                                                                                                           o Students will complete a lab to explore convection, such as the one in the STC Catastrophic Events kit.                     o Students will complete a worksheet of applications of convection to daily life. 

     Tuesday:

    Objective:
     1.)Students will gain a better understanding of how convection currents drive plate movement inside the Earth which leads to many of the landforms we observe around us. 2.) The student will diagram convection in the mantle with 100% accuracy 3.) The student will use evidence to develop reasonable explanations that are 80% accurate by the end of the lesson 4.) The Student will be able to Identify the 4 main layers of the Earth's interior with 100% accuracy by the end of the lesson.

     

    Accommodations:
     Students will work in groups so that all students, regardless of ability, will be involved. Students will be assigned different roles according to their strengths. Students with ADHD will have time to be up and moving. Students with limited abilities will have the help of their group to discuss observations and make calculations
    Checking For Understanding:
     1.) Explain how the model portrays the actual situation and how it is different. 2.) Complete the sketches which show how the convection currents cause movenent. 3.) Student reflections on what they have learned and how it can be applied to their daily lives.
    Closure:
     1.) Have students research plate tectonics and connect convection in the mantle to movement of the Earth's plates. 2.) Have students brainstorm other experiments that could be created to model mantle convection
    Evaluation:
     1.) Students will explain the conclusion of this experiment based on their predictions, measurements and observations. 2.) Students will sketch and label the mobel correctly 3.) Students will reflect on what they learned and how it can relate to their daily lives
     

     

     Wednesday

    Objective

    SWBAT identify that temperature change impacts the density of a substance, and the resulting change can cause movement inside the Earth.

    Big Idea

    What causes tectonic plate movement? Could the answer be the convection currents in the mantle?

     

    Prior to this lesson, students would have developed a working definition of density with the lessons in the Density Unit. In this Earth Science Unit we are discovering how our planet changes with plate movement. Students will apply their understanding of density to plate tectonics, discovering that convection currents in the mantle beneath the earth's crust cause the tectonic plates to move. Temperature changes cause these changes in density, creating convection currents. 

    SWBAT: develop an understanding of how heating and cooling causes movement in the form of convection currents in the Earth's mantle by observing how liquids of different temperatures interact. (Planning and Carrying Out Investigations)                                                                                                                                                SWBAT: Use this evidence to infer that the convection currents are thought to be responsible for changes in the Earth's surface over time (Standard: ES.2.2 Construct an explanation based on evidence how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales) and (Developing and Using Models)

    SWBAT: record their observations, as drawings, reflecting what they observed and explaining why the movement happened based upon their understanding of density. Reflection about the learning helps students think deeply about what they are learning. Production of writing is a critical skill, and the only way to build stamina is to practice writing. Having students routinely write, as part of their scientific habits, is a critical element of instruction (Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.)

     

    Thursday

    Objective 1

    Evaluate the source of Earth's internal heat and the evidence of Earth's internal structure.

    • Earth's Interior Posters
      Students will also begin to learn about convection currents. Using their textbooks as a resource, in small groups students will make posters of the earth's interior. They will label and identify important features to understanding the idea of plate tectonics.
    • Investigating Convection
      Students will plan and conduct an experiment that investigates convection currents.
    • Modeling Earth's Mantle
      In this lab students make a fluid that models Earth's mantle made of rocks that are solid yet can flow like a liquid.
    • Plate Tectonics Convection Lab
      Students will model and observe the process of convection as it moves Earths crust.

    UNIT PLAN 11/4 to 11/25/2019

    Students will learn that the Earth is made of different layers with varying compositions and characteristics. Students will complete 4 activities in the course of this lesson.

    Earths_Layers_Model.docx

    Key_Layers_of_the_Earth_Exit_Slip.docx

    Layers_of_the_Earth_Exit_Slip.docx
    Self_Evaluation_Scale.docx
    Rubric_Layers_of_the_Earth_for_the_Model.docx
    Earths_Interiors_Lab_Sheet_Key.docx
    Earths_Interiors_Lab_Sheet.docx

      1. SWBAT: identify and describe the layers of the solid Earth (including Lithosphere, the hot convecting mantle, the dense metallic liquid, and solid core).
      2. SWBAT: use a self-evaluation scale to rate themselves during the lesson.
    • Prior Knowledge: 

      This is an introduction lesson to the layers of the Earth.

      1. Students should have some knowledge about plate tectonics:
        • Standard:ES.6.5 Explore the scientific theory of plate tectonics by describing how the movement of Earth's crustal plates causes both slow and rapid changes in Earth's surface, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and mountain building.
      2. Possible Misconceptions:
        • The Earth is completely solid throughout or rigid and without movement.
        • Crust and Lithosphere (or plates) are the same.
        • Earth's core is hollow or large hollow spaces occur deep within Earth.
        • Asthenosphere is a liquid because convection applies to liquids.
    • Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?

      Why are there different layers to the structure of the Earth? (Different layers exist due to composition, density, temperature, and pressure.)

      The lesson consists of four short activities (2 days) for students to identify and describe the layers of the Earth.

      Monday-Nov.4th:

      1. Teacher has students work on bellringer using the four corners strategy.
        • Teacher will assign each corner of the room a student response and students will go to the corner that matches their response.
        • In the corresponding corners students will discuss and clarify their own thinking.
        • One person from each corner will explain the group's reasoning to the rest of the class.
        • After all the groups have explained their answers, students have the opportunity to change their answers.
        • If they choose to change their answer, they have to explain why in their academic notebook.
      2. Teacher instructs students to return to their seats where teacher will assign groups of three or four for the next activity.
      3. Teacher provides directions for the Interior Layers of the Earth hands-on activity.
        • "Each group has a labeled bag that represents one of the layers of the Earth. Do not open the bags. Make your observations about what is in the bag and compare that with the labeled cards that show the characteristics for each layer. Once you have figured out which layer you have raise your hand and I will come around to check your answers. After I have confirmed you are correct, you will fill in the appropriate boxes in the data table on your lab sheet."
      4. Teacher directs students in groups to create a graph of the depth of the layers.
        • "Now that we have learned about each of the Earth's layers, let's make a bar graph of the layers in order of increasing depth."
        • "Label the x-axis as types of layers."
        • "Label the y-axis as depth in kilometers."
        • "Title your graph The Depth of Earth's Layers."
        • "Once you have labeled all axes appropriately, graph the bars according to the information on the labeled cards."

      Tuesday: Mapping Earth's Interior

       

      How do we know the nature of Earth's interior structure?

      Much of what we know about Earth's interior comes from seismic waves. Seismic waves are waves of energy that can be caused by earthquakes. The two main types of seismic waves are body waves and surface waves. Body waves travel through the Earth’s interior in all directions. Surface waves travel only along the surface of the Earth, like ripples on water. It is the behavior of body waves that gives us clues about the nature of Earth's interior. There are two types of body waves: primary waves (P waves) and secondary waves (S waves).

      What are P and S waves?

      p and s waves
      P and S waves.

      P waves stand for “primary waves.” They’re considered to be primary because they travel faster than S waves and, after any given earthquake, will reach a seismic recording station first. In the video, two children simulate P waves by holding opposite ends of a Slinky on the floor. One child pushes the end of the Slinky towards the other child. As a wave moves down the Slinky, the coils can be seen to push forward and compress, then pull back and open up again. This simulates the action of P waves. P waves are compressional waves that exert a force in the direction that the wave travels. These waves push through rock in the same way that sound waves push though air.

      S waves stand for “secondary waves.” In the video, two children hold opposite ends of a Slinky on the floor and one child moves the Slinky from side to side. In this case, as the wave moves down the Slinky, the coils can be seen to shake side to side, elastically springing back. S waves are shear waves that exert a force perpendicular to the direction that the wave travels.

      What are the differences between P and S waves?

      Scientists have learned about Earth’s internal structure by studying how these waves travel through the Earth. The technique is straightforward — it involves measuring the time it takes for both types of waves to reach seismic stations from the epicenter of an earthquake. Since P waves travel faster than S waves, they’re always detected first. The farther away from the epicenter, the larger the time interval between the arrival of P and S waves — and if the Earth were built of a uniform substance, that would be the only variation measured.

      Scientists, however, noticed variations that could not be accounted for based simply on the distance traveled from the epicenter. For instance, they noticed places in the Earth through which S waves didn’t travel. Geologists inferred that these sections of the Earth were liquid, through which S waves (which, remember, are shear waves) cannot travel. You may not know it, but you are probably already familiar with this phenomenon. In a bathtub, if you submerge your arm underwater and push your hand straight out from your body, you can see a wave arrive as it hits the edge of the tub. Consider this an example of a P wave. If you then move your hand side to side in the water, you should notice that the wave does not hit the edge of the tub in front of you. Consider this to represent an S wave. What happened to it?

      Solids and liquids both transmit P waves because their particles transfer energy in the direction of the wave as they compress and elastically spring back along its length. As with the child at the end of the Slinky, the seismograph at the end of a P wave detects a “push” — the energy of this action. Although S waves don’t compress, they still travel through solids because the particles in solids elastically spring back even when moved only from side to side. This is not a property of liquids. In liquids, the energy of an S wave simply dissipates. So technically, the second Slinky described above represented an S wave travelling through a solid.

      What were scientists able to learn from P and S waves?

      earth cut out
      Simulation of an Earth cross section.

      The absence of S waves in certain places along with an understanding of S wave behavior in solids and liquids led scientists to conclude that the outer core is liquid and effectively absorbs S waves. As the number of seismic readings increased along with their precision, a worldwide community of scientists uncovered patterns that indicated a much more complicated picture of the Earth’s interior than was previously believed. Scientists have been able to distinguish the layers of the Earth that are made of different materials that transmit waves at different speeds. Based on these seismic observations, the Earth’s interior has been divided into the following layers:

      • Crust: A very thin, solid outer layer. The oceanic crust is about 5 km (3 miles) thick. The continental crust is from 30–40 km (18–24 miles) thick.
      • Moho: The boundary between the crust and the mantle.
      • Mantle: The layer beneath the crust. The mantle is about 2885 km (1790 miles) thick.
      • Upper mantle: Includes a solid layer fused to the crust. This layer combined with the crust is called the lithosphere. Beneath this is the asthenosphere, which is a partly molten layer. The asthenosphere is thought to be the layer upon which tectonic plates ride. The upper mantle is about 700 km (420 miles) thick.
      • Lower mantle: Is composed of solid rock under conditions of extremely high temperature and pressure. This layer is about 2,185 km (1,370 miles) thick.
      • Outer Core: A layer about 2,270 km (1,400 miles) thick, having the properties of a metallic liquid.
      • Inner Core: A solid, metallic, spherical layer about 1,216 km (755 miles) thick.
    •  

      1. After learning and reviewing the Earth's layers, teacher will instruct students to work individually and create a scale model using play dough.
        • "I have provided you with several colors of play dough for you to use to construct a model of the Earth's layers. Follow the written instructions to create your model. If you have questions, raise your hand and I will be there shortly to assist you."
      2. Teacher will circulate around the classroom assisting in the clarification of instructions and checking if students know the characteristics of each layer.
        • "How do each of Earth's layers compare to each other?" (The Inner Core is made out of Iron and Nickel with a very high temperature and pressure, but the crust is made out of sediment and water.)
    • Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?

      Wednesday:

      Earth's interior activity (prepare the contents of the bags and the corresponding information cards prior to Day 1. See Materials Section for instructions).

      1. Students will gather materials (bags filled with different contents & labeled cards with characteristics of each layer).
      2. Students will say the layers of Earth's interior (labeled on the cards) and write them down in their academic notebook with the assistance of the teacher.
      3. Teacher will assist students in exploring the properties of each layer of Earth using the bags with different substances.
        • "What properties do you see? What layer is this?" (The substance moves really slow. We think this is the mantle.)
      4. Teacher monitors the groups and when most of them are finished, reconvenes as a whole class.
      5. Teacher asks students to share their thoughts.
        • "What did you think of the outer core?" (I thought it was cool because it was wet. Is it really wet inside the Earth?)
      6. Teacher will discuss the answers below with the class and have the students copy the information down in their academic notebook:
        • Bag of soil = the crust. 5-70 km thick, rocky, very thin-if Earth were an apple, the crust would be as thick as the skin.
        • Honey = the mantle, 2900 km thick, semisolid, molten rock. The honey moves in the same way as the mantle; it flows very slowly, like hot asphalt. This layer is made of oxygen, silicon, aluminum, magnesium. 870-3700 degrees F.
        • Water = outer core-200 km thick, made of iron and nickel, liquid (be sure to stress that the outer core is not made of water) 3700-4300 degrees F.
        • Oobleck = inner core- 1250 km thick, solid ball of iron and nickel, 4300-7200 degrees F. It should be liquid (because of high temperature), but the great pressure makes it solid (just like the oobleck).
      7. Students can complete the Earth's Interiors Lab Sheet as they complete the lab or after they complete the lab. The answers can be found in the Earth's Interiors Lab Sheet Key. Teacher will go over the answers with the class prior to the end of the period.
    • Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?

      Thursday:

      Earth's Layers Model

      1. After learning and reviewing the Earth's layers, students will create a model using play dough. They will work independently and use the directions from the Earth's Layers Model to complete this activity.
        • They will first create the small, dense inner core using red clay to symbolize the hot center and orange for the outer core.
        • Over the outer core they will wrap a thick layer of yellow which represents the mantle.
        • To represent the crust, they will use a thin layer of blue and green (blue for the oceans and green for the landforms).
        • Students can observe a globe to realize that they need more blue since 70% of the Earth's surface is water.
      2. After the model is completed, students will use the fishing line to cut straight through their model so they can observe the layers.
      3. Following this activity they will label the diagram from the instructions they were given and answer the following questions in their notebook (students may use their data table from the Earth's Interiors Lab Sheet, a computer, and/or others resources to locate answers).
        • Why is the Earth hotter at the core than on the surface of the Earth? (High pressures inside Earth,1.3 million atmospheres, cause the core to be really hot).
        • If iron is at the center of the Earth, does the Earth work like a giant magnet? How do we know? (Yes, because of the motion of molten iron alloys in its outer core).
    • Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?

      1. Students will self-assess their models using the rubric provided with teacher supervision/guidance.
      2. Students will place the model and the rubric in a designated spot in the classroom for the teacher to review.
      3. Students will return to seats and answer 3 questions before the close of the lesson. Questions are found in the Layers of the Earth Exit Slip. Teacher will go over the answers which are found in the Layers of the Earth Exit Slip Key.
    • Summative Assessment

      Friday:

      1. Students will self-assess their Earth's Layers Model using a rubric with teacher guidance/supervision.
      2. At the end the lesson, the students will complete a summative assessment via the Layers of the Earth Exit Slip. The answers are provided in the key.
    • Formative Assessment

      1. Teacher will use the Layers of the Earth Bellringer to engage students during the first 10 minutes of class.
      2. After students have adequate time to answerthebellringer, teacher will use Four Corners strategy to identify groups of students with similar responses:
        • Teacher will assign each corner of the room a student response and students will go to the corner that matches their response.
        • In the corresponding corners, students discuss and clarify their own thinking.
        • One person from each corner will explain their group's reasoning to the rest of the class.
        • After all the groups have explained their answers, students have the opportunity to change their answers.
        • If they choose to change their answer, they have to explain why in the academic notebook.
          • Sample student response: I think the Earth has 2 layers because there are mountains and lava (Students responses should be basic at this point because they have not learned the material).
      3. Students will be asked questions by the teacher during the Layers of the Earth Bag Activity:
        • "What properties do you see? What layer is this?" (The substance moves really slow. We think this is the mantle.)
        • "What did you think of the outer core?" (I thought it was cool because it was wet. Is it really wet inside the Earth?)
        • "What are the differences between the inner core and outer core?" (The inner core is solid and the outer core is liquid.)
        • "What type of current will occur in the mantle? Why?" (Convection. The differences in densities and temperature cause the current to occur.)
        • "What might we expect to see on the Earth's crust?" (Dirt, rock, sediment, water, minerals, etc.)

      How do each of Earth's layers compare to each other?

      • What are the layers of the Earth? (core, mantle, crust)
      • What characteristics do each layer have? (The crust is rocky, very thin-if Earth were an apple, the crust would be as thick as the skin. the mantle, semisolid, molten rock. outer core-made of iron and nickel, liquid very high temperature. inner core- solid ball of iron and nickel, very high temperature and very high pressure).
      • Why do convection currents occur in the mantle? (Because, of the differences in its temperature
    • Feedback to Students

      1. During the Earth's Interiors Bag Activity, the teacher will circulate around the room while students are discussing their answers. Possible probing questions are:
        • If you hike through a park, over a mountain, or across a playground, what lies beneath your feet? (Answers will vary, but they might mention grass, dirt, stones, etc.)
        • If we could dig all the way to the middle of the Earth, what do you think it would look like? (Responses will vary.)
        • "What properties do you see? What layer is this?" (The substance moves really slow. We think this is the mantle.)
        • "What did you think of the outer core?" (I thought it was cool because it was wet. Is it really wet inside the Earth?)
        • "What are the differences between the inner core and outer core?" (The inner core is solid and the outer core is liquid.)
        • "What type of current will occur in the mantle? Why?" (Convection. The differences in densities and temperature cause the current to occur.)
        • "What might we expect to see on the Earth's crust?" (Dirt, rock, sediment, water, minerals, etc.)
      2. Teacher provides additional feedback concerning directions for Layers of the Earth Bag Activity:
        • "Do not open the bags."
        • "Observe and predict which layer you have."
        • "Copy the characteristics into your table."

    ACCOMMODATIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

    • Accommodations:

      ELL Strategies:

      1. List steps for completing assignments.
      2. Help students to guess word meanings for clarification by using context clues or cognates.
      3. Incorporate use of word walls with picture.
      4. Give extra time for task completion.
      5. Provide opportunities for students to describe, inform, evaluate, judge, write and critique.

      ESE Strategies:

      1. Read assessment orally to student.
      2. Repeat/rephrase directions.
      3. Pictures on paper, posters, models, projection screens, or computers.
      4. Give extra time for task completion.

    • Extensions:

      Have students write a reflection on the activity in their academic notebook with the following questions:

      1. Why are there different layers to the structure of the Earth? (Different layers exist due to composition, density, temperature, and pressure.)
      2. If you were to create your own Layers of the Earth Bag Activity, what materials would you use instead of the materials you used today. Explain why. (Responses will vary depending on student experience and should make logical sense when each bag is compared with the others.)

    • Suggested Technology: Interactive Whiteboard, Microsoft Office

    • Special Materials Needed:

      Day 1 Materials:

      1. Bellringer written on the board. 
      2. Earth's Interior Bag Activity (enough for each group): 
        • 1 bag of honey. 
        • 1 bag of dyed oobleck (see further recommendations for recipe).
        • 1 bag of water.
        • 1 bag of soil. 
        • Index cards with the following labels and information: 
          • Crust- 5-70 km thick, rocky, very thin (thickness of apple peels)
          • Mantle- 2900 km thick, semisolid, molten rock. It flows very slowly, like hot asphalt. This layer is made of oxygen, silicon, aluminum, magnesium. 870-3700 degrees F. 
          • Outer core-200 km thick, made of iron and nickel, liquid 3700-4300 degrees F. 
          • Inner core- 1250 km thick, solid ball of iron and nickel, 4300-7200 degrees F. It should be liquid (because of high temperature), but the great pressure makes it solid. 
      3. Class set of Earth's Interiors Lab Sheet
      4. Graph paper. 
      5. Computer access for answering lab sheet questions. 

      Day 2 Materials:

      1. Class set of Earth's Layers ModelLayers of the Earth Exit Slip, and Earth's Layers Model Rubric.
      2. Play dough (red, yellow, orange, blue, and green) and fishing line (enough for each group). 

    • Further Recommendations:

      Day 1 Recommendations:

      1. Prepare Oobleck the day before by mixing 1 part water with 1.5 to 2 parts cornstarch. If you want a more 'solid' Oobleck, keep adding more cornstarch. It will take about 10 minutes to get a nice homogeneous mixture. The last step is to add several drops of food coloring. Make enough for each group to have one bag of Oobleck.
      2. Gain access to computers for students to have the option to use in order to fill in the chart on the Earth's Interiors Lab Sheet.

      Day 2 Recommendations:

      1. The Earth's Layers Model picture and instructions can be projected for students to see while they work.

    LESSON CONTENT

    • Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?

      1. The students will be able to identify and describe the layers of the solid Earth (including Lithosphere, the hot convecting mantle, the dense metallic liquid, and solid core).
      2. The students will be able to use a self-evaluation scale to rate themselves during the lesson.
    • Prior Knowledge: 

      This is an introduction lesson to the layers of the Earth.

      1. Students should have some knowledge about plate tectonics:
        • SC.7.E.6.5 Explore the scientific theory of plate tectonics by describing how the movement of Earth's crustal plates causes both slow and rapid changes in Earth's surface, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and mountain building.
      2. Possible Misconceptions:
        • The Earth is completely solid throughout or rigid and without movement.
        • Crust and Lithosphere (or plates) are the same.
        • Earth's core is hollow or large hollow spaces occur deep within Earth.
        • Asthenosphere is a liquid because convection applies to liquids.
    • Guiding Questions: 

      Why are there different layers to the structure of the Earth? (Different layers exist due to composition, density, temperature, and pressure.)

    • SWBAT: What will students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?

      1. Students will discover and explain that the relation between distance and period involves exponents.
      2. Students will learn how to use data to create a law and that the law does not constitute a theory since the data fitting does not include an explanation (Newton's theory).
      3. Students will combine their knowledge from algebra and geometry with fundamental ideas in astronomy.
      4. Students will explain how our knowledge has evolved through history.
    • Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?

      1. Students should understand the heliocentric model of the solar system and that the planetary paths are close to circular.
      2. Students should understand the meaning of integer exponents.
      3. Students should understand the basics of scientific notation.
    • Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?

      1. How do the period and speed of a planet vary with distance from the sun?
      2. How can a hypothesis that is not supported by data contribute to our understanding?
    • Introduction: How will the teacher introduce the lesson to the students?

      1. One of the oldest questions in science is "What is the structure of the solar system?" For many centuries the most common belief was that the earth is the center of the solar system with the sun, moon, and planets revolving around the earth. In the 1500s, Copernicus suggested that the sun is the center of the solar system with the planets traveling in circular paths around the sun. Shortly thereafter, Tycho Brahe proposed a hybrid model: the sun and moon revolved around the earth, with the other planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) revolving around the sun.
      2. We will see a video that describes what happened next.
    • Investigate: What question(s) will students be investigating? What process will students follow to collect information that can be used to answer the question(s)?

      1. Do all planets travel at the same speed? Students will be provided the distance from the sun and the orbital period for the six planets known to astronomers in 1600.
      2. Is the period proportional to the square of the distance from the sun?
      3. Is the square of the period proportional to the square of the distance from the sun?
      4. What is the simple law that describes the relationship between the distance from the sun and the orbital periods of the planets?
    • Analyze: How will students organize and interpret the data collected during the investigation?

      Students will be provided the data and will need to calculate quantities related to the data.

    • Closure: What will the teacher do to bring the lesson to a close? How will the students make sense of the investigation?

      The teacher will ask questions such as

      1. Does the relationship between solar distance and period that you found provide an explanation?
      2. This activity provides an example of how scientists in different countries contributed to our understanding of the structure of the solar system. Moreover, we see how even an incorrect hypothesis can be valuable in providing the motivation for important discoveries.
    • Summative Assessment

      1. Name two important results of Kepler's investigation.
      2. Why is Kepler's wrong idea regarding the distances of the planets important?
      3. Suppose you had data regarding the length of a pendulum and its period. What would you do to seek a law that relates the length and the period.
    • Formative Assessment

      1. After the students have finished watching the Kepler video, the students will complete the questions on their worksheet that relate to the video. A short class discussion will be included.
      2. After the students have determined whether or not the planets move at the same speed, the teacher will inquire whether there is any pattern, e.g. do the planets closer to the sun travel faster or slower than the planets further away.
      3. Are there any relationships in mathematics wherein one quantity is proportional to the square of another? Possible answer: area of circles, squares.
      4. After some students have "discovered" the law D3 = P2, ask whether we understand why that relationship seems to work. Also, ask whether we have proven that this law must be valid for other planets, such as Uranus and Nepture.
    • Feedback to Students

      The lesson plan includes many notes to the teacher indicating suggestions for discussions.

      When students test a hypothesis and it turns out NOT to be supported by the data, they should be complimented on their attempt and to try another hypothesis. If there is insufficient time for them to complete the testing, they should be encouraged to indicate some possibilities that could be tested.

    ACCOMMODATIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS


    • Accommodations:
      1. Students will work in teams of 2-3.
      2. Included are extensions that enable students who work quickly to develop a deeper understanding of the concepts.

    • Extensions:
      • Indicate the distance-period relation for the solar system when distances are measured in kilometers.
      • It has been observed that the period of Uranus is approximately 3.06x104 days. Use Kepler's law to estimate the distance of Uranus from the sun in both AU and kilometers.

    • Suggested Technology: Computer for Presenter, Internet Connection, Basic Calculators, Microsoft Office

    •  

      Special Materials Needed:

       

      Graph paper.

    Keywords: Kepler, Kepler's laws, planets, period, orbits, integration of mathematics and science, cosmology, solar system

    Objectives: Students will be able to

    1. state and understand Kepler's three laws of planetary motion.
    2. define the parts of an ellipse and construct an ellipse.
    3. calculate eccentricity of an ellipse.
    4. use a planet's eccentricity to construct its orbit.
    5. use Kepler's third law to calculate the period of revolution or the measure of the semimajor axis

     

    Kepler's first law states that the orbits of the planets and other celestial bodies around the Sun are ellipses. An ellipse is defined as a figure drawn around two points called the foci such that the distance from one focus to any point on the figure back to the other focus equals a constant.

     

    [Diagram of an Ellipse]

    This constant is the measure of the long diameter of the ellipse, the major axis. Half of this segment is called the semimajor axis. The short diameter, the minor axis, is a perpendicular bisector of the major axis. Half of the minor axis is called the semiminor axis. For planets, the Sun is at one focus, nothing is at the other.

    The eccentricity of an ellipse is a measure of its flatness. Numerically, it is the distance between the foci divided by the length of the major axis. The following is a series of ellipses having the same major axis but different eccentricities:

     

    [Eccentricity Diagram]

    As the eccentricity approaches 1, the ellipse approaches a straight line. As the eccentricity approaches 0, the foci come closer together and the ellipse becomes more circular. A circle has an eccentricity of zero.

    Kepler's second law states that a line from the planet to the Sun sweeps over equal areas in equal amounts of time. These areas in the ellipse are called sectors. In the following diagram, as the planet moves from point A to point B along its orbit, a long, skinny sector is created.

    [Orbital Ellipse
Diagram]

    If we wanted to create a sector of equal area at points closer to the Sun (points C and D), the result is a short, fat sector. According to Kepler, the time it takes for the planet to get from A to B is equal to the time it takes the planet to get from C to D. This means that a planet orbits slower as it moves further from the Sun.

    Kepler's third law deals with the length of time a planet takes to orbit the Sun, called the period of revolution. The law states that the square of the period of revolution is proportional to the cube of the planet's average distance to the sun:

    P2=a3.

    Because of the way a planet moves along its orbit, its average distance from the Sun is half of the long diameter of the elliptical orbit (the semimajor axis.) The period, P, is measured in years and the semimajor axis, a, is measured in astronomical units (AU), the average distance from the Earth to the Sun.

    An example for using this formula would be to calculate how long it takes the near-Earth asteroid called Eros to orbit the Sun. The closest distance to the Sun that Eros orbits is 1.13 AU, and the farthest away from the Sun that it orbits is 1.78 AU. So, the average distance from Eros to the Sun, the semimajor axis, is (1.13 + 1.78)/2 = 1.46 AU. Substituting this in for a in the formula

    P2=a3

    and solving for P we see that it takes Eros about 1.76 years to orbit the Sun.


    Activities

     Optional Activity 1: Constructing Orbits

    These are the activities you will be required to complete IF you do not reach mastery at the end of each unit.

     Assignment    

     Description

     Reading

     Read pages assigned in the textbook and take two pages of Cornell notes on what you read. 

     Review Test

     Complete the remediation test for that Unit and score 80% or higher.
    Turn in your remediation within 5 days of the Unit test being given in class.

     

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