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    11/20/2019

    The rock cycle

    Standards:

    H.E.3A.1 Analyze and interpret data to explain the differentiation of Earth’s internal structure.

    H.E.3A.6 Develop and use models to explain how various rock formations on the surface of Earth result from geologic processes (including weathering, erosion, deposition, and glaciation).

    SWBAT: – Give examples of some changes in the Earth’s surface that are abrupt, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and some changes that happen very slowly, such as uplift and wearing down of mountains, and the action of glaciers.

    SWBAT: – Describe how sediments of sand and smaller particles, sometimes containing the remains of organisms, are gradually buried and are cemented together by dissolved minerals to form rock again.

    SWBAT:– Explain that sedimentary rock, when buried deep enough, may be reformed by pressure and heat, perhaps melting and recrystallizing into different kinds of rock.  Describe that these reformed rock layers may be forced up again to become land surface and even mountains, and subsequently erode.

     Objectives:

    • Students will be able to define igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks with regard to the rock cycle
    • Students will be able to explain the movement of earth materials through the rock cycle.
    • Students will be able to explain that subjecting earth materials to heat and pressure is a process called metamorphism.
    • Students will be able to explain that the melting and recrystallization of earth materials produces igneous rocks.
    • Students will be able to explain weathering and erosion of earth materials produces sediment.
    • Students will be able to explain that the compaction and cementation of sediment produces sedimentary rocks.

    The Rock Cycle is a group of changes. Igneous rock can change into sedimentary rock or into metamorphic rock. Sedimentary rock can change into metamorphic rock or into igneous rock. Metamorphic rock can change into igneous or sedimentary rock.

    Igneous rock forms when magma cools and makes crystals. Magma is a hot liquid made of melted minerals. The minerals can form crystals when they cool. Igneous rock can form underground, where the magma cools slowly. Or, igneous rock can form above ground, where the magma cools quickly.

     

    When it pours out on Earth's surface, magma is called lava. Yes, the same liquid rock matter that you see coming out of volcanoes.

    On Earth's surface, wind and water can break rock into pieces. They can also carry rock pieces to another place. Usually, the rock pieces, called sediments, drop from the wind or water to make a layer. The layer can be buried under other layers of sediments. After a long time the sediments can be cemented together to make sedimentary rock. In this way, igneous rock can become sedimentary rock.

    All rock can be heated. But where does the heat come from? Inside Earth there is heat from pressure (push your hands together very hard and feel the heat). There is heat from friction (rub your hands together and feel the heat). There is also heat from radioactive decay (the process that gives us nuclear power plants that make electricity).

    So, what does the heat do to the rock? It bakes the rock.

    Baked rock does not melt, but it does change. It forms crystals. If it has crystals already, it forms larger crystals. Because this rock changes, it is called metamorphic. Remember that a caterpillar changes to become a butterfly. That change is called metamorphosis. Metamorphosis can occur in rock when they are heated to 300 to 700 degrees Celsius.

     

    When Earth's tectonic plates move around, they produce heat. When they collide, they build mountains and metamorphose (met-ah-MORE-foes) the rock.

    The rock cycle continues. Mountains made of metamorphic rocks can be broken up and washed away by streams. New sediments from these mountains can make new sedimentary rock.

    The rock cycle never stops.

     

    Explain:

    1. Ask students questions about the rock cycle:
    2. How does igneous rock become sedimentary rock?
    3. What animal goes through metamorphosis?
    4. What is produced when Earth's plates collide?  How does this change rocks?
    5. What are the two ways igneous rock can form?

     Apply:  Click here for a rock cycle database to test the student's understanding of the rock cycle.

    Extend:

    Internet Activities:

    Log on to http://www.moorlandschool.co.uk/earth/rock_cycle_q to take a rock cycle quiz.

    Follow-up:  This lesson will lead to Lesson4- How can we tell the hardness of rocks?

     

    11/19/2019

    Chapter 5

    Use your book 

     1.A series of processes that slowly change rocks from one kind to another is referred to as the

    2. Is the following sentence true or false? The rock cycle is produced by forces inside the Earth and at the surface

     3. All rocks follow the same pathway through the rock cycle is a false statement. Why?

     4. How does granite change into sandstone?

     5. How does sandstone change into quartzite?

     6. Define igneous rocks.

    .7. Give examples of 2 intrusive rocks.

     8. Give examples of 2 extrusive rocks.

     9. Give examples of 2 rocks that are high in silica.

     10. Give examples of 2 rocks that are low in silica.

     11. Define sedimentary rock.

    .12. How are clastic rocks formed?

    .13. Give an example of a large grain clastic rock.

     14. Give an example of a med. Grain clastic rock.

     15. Give an example of a small grain clastic rock.

     16. How are chemical sedimentary rocks formed?

     17. Give 2 examples of chemical rocks.

     18. How are organic sedimentary rocks formed?

     19. Give 2 examples of organic rocks.

     20. Define Metamorphic rock.

     21. What does foliated mean?

     22. Give an example of a foliated rock.

    11/18/2019

      OBJECTIVES

    1.    Students will be able to define and describe how the three major types of rocks are formed.

    2.    Students will identify the three types of rocks.

    Topic:
     Types of Rocks
    Content:
     rock, igneous rock, Sediimentary rock, metamorphic rock, weathering, and erosion
    Goals:
     SWBAT differentiate among different kinds of rocks. SWBAT describe the relationship between rocks and minerals.
    Objectives:
     Goal 2: The learner will conduct investigations and use appropriate technology to build an understanding of the composition and uses of rocks and minerals. 2.06 Classify rocks and minerals
    Materials:
     Harcourt Science Textbook, 5 labled rock samples, trays, hand lens, science journal
    Introduction:
     Allow the students to use the hand lens to observe the 5 rock samples in the tray at their table. Ask questions about how the rocks are alike and how they are different.
    Development:
     Explain to students that today they will be reading about 3 types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. A rock is material made up of one or more minerals. Igneous rocks are formed when melted rock hardens. Sedimentary rocks are formed from sediment at the bottom of streams, lakes, and rivers. Over time the layers of sediment are squeezed and stuck together. Metamorphic rocks are formed when heat and pressure changes other types of rocks.
    Practice:
     Allow students to organize the concepts learned in the lesson by completing the graphic organizer on rocks as you model it the elmo.
    Accommodations:
     Students will work in co-operative groups to classify the rock samples.
    Checking For Understanding:
     Students will complete a graphic organizer on rocks and glue them into their science journals.
    Closure:
     Review the concepts in today's lesson by asking the following questions: What are rocks? How are rocks classified? Ask different students to summarize the formation process of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

     Key Vocabulary

    • Rock cycle
    • Igneous rock
    • Extrusive rock
    • Intrusive rock
    • Granite
    • Sediments
    • Sedimentary rock
    • Metamorphic rock
    • Clasts
    • Sediment
    • Lithification
    • Compaction
    • Cementation
    • Beds
    • Clastic rocks
    • Clay
    • Silt
    • Shale
    • Sandstone
    • Gravel
    • Conglomerate
    • Breccia
    • Tillite
    • Coal
    • Evaporites
    • Limestone
    • Dolomite
    • Chert

    Exit Ticket:  Ask students, “Do you think igneous rock could be turned into sedimentary rock? How? Could it be turned directly into metamorphic rock? How? Could a metamorphic rock be turned directly into sedimentary rock? How?

    11/15/2019

    Unit Recovery Day

    Course Referral for Unit Recovery

     Students were given their recovery contracts today.

    Student Name:  ____________________________________Grade Level: 9-12                            

    Course: __Earth Science_________   Teacher: _Dr. Hare_____ School: _____SAHS____

    UNIT RECOVERY

    Unit grade will be replaced with a 60.

    Please select one option and list the Unit that is being recovered:

    • Teacher Recovery

    Unit(s) to Recover: Earth’s Composition__(Standards _H.E.2B.1-HE. 2B.2)

    Start Date of Recovery: __11/15/2019_      Recovery Due Date: ___11/22/2019______

    Teacher Signature: ________________________________

    By signing below, I understand this recovery program is a voluntary intervention to receive additional support to achieve a passing grade.  I understand I will not receive any credit until all units in the recovery program are completed on or before the deadline. No credit will be given for recovery work unless it is completed by specified deadline listed above.

    Administrator Signature:                                                          Student Signature:                                                    

    Parent Signature:                                    Counselor Signature:                     ___                   

    Date:                           

     

    Qt.1 Recovery Assignment for Passing Grade (Due Nov.22,2019) Earth Science 3rd & 5th

    You did not pass Quarter 1. This paper is an attempt to allow your Q1 grade to be replaced with a 60%.

                                  

    Where necessary, all answer must be in complete sentences. Answer all questions on a separate sheet of paper.

     

    1. Earth is about ___ billion years, the moon __ the universe about ___ billion years old.
    2. James Hutton (1726-1797) proposed that geologic processes in the past proceed as they do in modern times, a hypothesis called ___. This theory was the opposite of a catastrophic view of earth's history.
    3. Convection cells in the mantle are principally responsible for plate movements. T or F 4. Oceanic plates are pulled apart at the _____- ______ ridges, and are recycled into the mantle at ____________ zones.
    4. Under the lithosphere is the __, a zone of heat softened rock located in the upper _____. It actually flows slowly. The lithosphere is the ___ and the cold brittle uppermost mantle.
    5. The radius of Earth is roughly ______ miles, the diameter twice as much, the circumference about 25000 miles at the equator.
    6. About 65 million years (my) ago a large meteorite hit earth, causing many extinctions. All of the ___________ became extinct, unless you count their relatives, the birds.
    7. Karl ______ suggested all science hypotheses must be falsifiable. The paradigm view of science was formulated by philosopher Thomas     ________. The first really useful and widely accepted geology paradigm began with a suggestion  by Princeton Professor Harry ______, based on ideas by Francis Bacon, Benjamin Franklin, Alfred Wegener, and Arthur Holmes. Harry's idea was popularly called Sea-Floor _________, and formed the basis of modern Plate __________.

     

    1. Match the terms

     

    1. Igneous _____ a. made of Iron and Nickel
    2. Andes Volcanoes ______ b. Mantle
    3. Layer beneath Crust ____ c. From molten rock
    4. Core ____ d. Evidence of subduction
    5. The Red Sea ____ e. Continents collided
    6. Appalachian Mountains _____ f. Flooded Rift Valley
    7. Asthenosphere ______ g. hot mantle layer; flows
    8. True or False?
    9. Many extinctions occurred about 65 million years ago. True or False?
    10. Many scientists believe a large meteorite struck the Earth at the end of the Cretaceous, raising a dust cloud that blotted out the sun and killed many plants large animals needed for food. True or False?
    11. During the Earth's first 10 to 20 million years, the planets internal temperature rose to the melting point of iron. True or False?
    12. The innermost of the concentric layers of the Earth, the Core, is mostly made of silicate minerals. True or False?
    13. Devonian sediments are younger than Cretaceous sediments. True or False?
    14. The San Andreas Fault is an example of a transform boundary between the North American and Pacific Plates. True or False?
    15. Partial melting near a subducting plate creates a magma (molten rock) that may rise to form volcanoes. True or False?

     

    1. Multiple choice:

     

    1. Earth became separated into three major concentric layers, in a process called:
    1. Isolation    b. aggregation    c. differentiation   d. migration

     

    1. Ocean crust, made of Basalt and its course grained equivalents, has

     

    1. lower density than continental crust    b. higher density than continental crust
    2. the same density as continental crust

     

    1. The Great Rift Valley of East Africa contains

     

    1. divergent plate boundaries  b. basalt rock from lava flows
    1. stream and lake sediments    All of the above

     

    1. The Rift Valley that our campus sits on

     

    1. is late Triassic and early Jurassic in age
    2. extends from New England to Alabama
    3. is the western margin of the rift that opened the Atlantic
    4. contain the same rocks and fossils as similar rocks in Morocco
    5. contain red shales with occasional dinosaur footprints
    6. contain basalt rock formed from lava flows in a rift valley
    7. All of the above (this is the answer)

     

    1. Explain

     

    1. Explain how folded and faulted mountain chains such as the Himalayas are formed.
    2. Explain why there is a long undersea mountain range (the mid-ocean ridge) between, for example, South America and Africa in the southern Atlantic.
    3. Explain why there is a long volcanic mountain range, called the Andes, along the west coast of South America.

     

    1. METRIC MEASUREMENT

    Define the following words.  Then, list the basic metric unit of measurement for each.

                      Distance –       Mass –             Volume –        Temperature -

     

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     11/14/2019

    SCIENTIFIC METHOD

    Label the diagram below using the steps of the scientific method:

                        

                                      

                           

     

    Label the atomic #, atomic mass, and symbol.

    In the periodic cell for Boron: how many protons? ____________

                                                    How many electrons? ___________

                                                    How many neutrons? ____________

     

    Define the following:

    Atom-Element-Atomic Mass-Atomic Number-Proton-Neutron-Electron-Valence Electron-Hot Spot-Ring of Fire-Epicenter-Focus-Normal Fault-Astronomical Unit-Lunar Eclipse-Solar Eclipse-Gas Giant Planet-Terrestrial Planet-Asteroid-Comet-Meteorite-Meteoroid-Sun Spots - Solar Winds - Solar Flare - Constellation - Black Holes -Reverse Fault-Strike-slip Fault-Primary Wave-Secondary Wave-Surface Wave-Seisomogram-Seismometer-Magnitude-Richter Scale-Tsunami- Natural Resources -  Renewable Resources  (give an example)- Nonrenewable Resources (give an example) –.Hypothesis-

    11/12-13/2019

    Objectives

    • Learn about the development of the periodic table of elements
    • Be able to find information about specific elements in the periodic table

    Stardard: ES. 4.2: The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states.See More HS-PS1.A.2 Resources

    SWBAT: Identify the Periodic Table of the Elements interactive activity.

    SWBAT: Complete the Chemistry Scavenger Hunt

    SWBAT: Use the Earth Science Resource Pack

    SWBAT: Use the Earth Science 4D/M6A Resources

     *Activity:  Students colour and label the periodic table by family as lecture progresses

    1. Introduce the periodic table by discussing its format (periods/families).
    2. Families consist of elements with similar properties due to similar electron configurations.
    3. Identify the groups on the periodic table and name them. Classify the elements as metals, non-metals or metalloids. Discuss the uniqueness of hydrogen.
      • Group 1 is also called the alkali metal group. These are strong metals that are unusually soft and very reactive toward Oxygen forming Oxides and water forming hydroxides of the metal. These elements are so reactive toward Oxygen and water vapour that they are stored under an inert liquid to protect them from Oxygen and water vapour.
      • Group 2 is called the alkaline earth metals.
      • Groups 3-12 are referred to as the transition metal groups.
      • Group 17 is referred to as the halogen group
      • Group 18 is referred to as the Noble gas group previously known as the inert gas group.
      • The metals which tend to have their atoms losing electrons during a chemical change are roughly found to the left Group 14
      • Non-metals which tend to have their atoms gaining electrons during chemical change are roughly found in Group16-17 with some elements in the lower parts of Groups 15.
      • Metalloids which tend to have their atoms sometimes losing and sometimes gaining electrons during chemical change are generally found in Groups 14-16

     

     

    11/11/2019

    Compositional Layers Mechanical Layers

    SWBAT: Describe what Earth was like right as the Solar System was forming? ... a series of concentric layers of differing composition and density; Molten iron and nickel.
    Core of the Earth: Facts, Composition, Layers & Temperature
    Core of the Earth: Facts, Composition, Layers & Temperature
    The Earth's Crust: Facts, Layers, Temperature & Composition
    The Earth's Crust: Facts, Layers, Temperature & Composition
    Inner Core of the Earth: Definition, Composition & Facts
    Inner Core of the Earth: Definition, Composition & Facts
    Outer Core of the Earth: Definition, Composition & Facts
    Outer Core of the Earth: Definition, Composition & Facts

     

    11/08/2019

    Essential Question:
    How are layers of the Earth different from one another?

    Standard:

    S6E5a. Compare and contrast the Earth’s crust, mantle, and core including temperature, density, and composition.

    11/06/2019

    Chapter 1  Earth’s Layers – Answer Key

    Name_________________________            Class ______   Date ___________________

    Use your textbook, foldable, vocabulary grid, density lab and any worksheets to help you answer the questions.  You can also use the online textbook and do the online quiz for extra credit-email me your results.

    This study guide is due on the day of the test.

    • What are the four layers of the Earth? (You need to know the location of each)

    Inner Core, Outer Core, Mantle and Crust (from inside to out)

    • Which layer is the thinnest? The thickest?

    The thinnest layer is the crust, the thickest is the mantle.

    • Which layers are solids? Which are liquids?

    The crust is solid, the mantle is semisolid (plastic) the outer core is liquid and the inner core is solid.

    • What are the convection currents (in the mantle)? (see chapter 4 also). How do the convection currents affect the lithosphere? The convection currents get heated from the core, begin to rise to the crust, cool and begin to fall. This action is most likely the result of plate tectonic motion.
    • What are the 2 types of crust?

    Continental and Oceanic

    • Which type of crust is the thickest? The thinnest?

    Continental crust is thicker and less dense, Oceanic crust is Basalt, thinner but denser from the water above it.

    • What metals are found in the core?

    Iron and nickel

    • Why is the core made of metal?

    Gravity ordered the layers of Earth, with the most-dense materials, metal, at the center and the least-dense materials at the surface.

    • Is the crust uniform (the same) in thickness around the world?

    Continental crust is thicker and lighter than oceanic crust. It is made of rock with a large percentage of elements of low mass, such as silicon and oxygen. Oceanic crust consists of dense rock that contains a large proportion of iron and magnesium. The crust is thickest at mountain ranges and thinnest at oceans.

    • What is the formula for density?

    D=M/V

    • If the volume of a solid is 5 mL and the mass is 25 grams, what is the density of the solid?

    5g

    • How does density play a role in the structure of the earth? (Why are there layers?)

    As the interior of the young Earth heated up, rocks and metals melted. The denser materials, such as iron, sank toward the center of Earth. The lighter materials formed layers above that.

    • What are the 5 Earth systems?

    atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere, cryosphere

    • What is a plateau?

    A plateau is high and flat on top. It has high elevation but low relief.

    • What is a landform?

    Geological forces in Earth create plains, mountains, and plateaus. At the same time forces of erosion, such as wind and water, wear away rocks and soil to form canyons and level mountains.

    • What is the lithosphere? The asthenosphere?

    Lithosphere- rigid layer that includes the crust and uppermost mantle. Asthenosphere- plastic, flowing layer within the mantle.

    • What 2 factors affect gravity?

    Mass and distance

     

    • How do temperature, pressure and density change as you go deeper into the Earth?

    Temperature pressure and density all increase as you go from the crust towards the interior of the Earth.

    • What is the most common landform?

    Plains

    • Draw and label a picture showing the following layers of the Earth

     

    Asthenosphere                    inner core             lithosphere           lower mantle

    Outer core                            upper mantle

     

     

     

     

    • Match the layer with its description:

     

    1. Asthenosphere
    2. inner core
    3. lithosphere
    4. lower mantle
    5. Outer core
    6. upper mantle

     

    ___E__hot liquid iron

    ___C__cool solid rock

    ___F__hot solid rock

    ___A__hot melted rock

    ___B__very hot solid iron

    ___D__hottest solid rock

     

    11/05/2019

    INSTRUCTIONS:  Color and label the Ocean Blue  Color and label the Oceanic crust light brown. (Label the thickness) (Label as Solid)  Color and label the top of the crust green.  Color and label the the continental crust dark brown. (Label the thickness)  Color and label the Lithosphere (upper mantle) yellow. Note that the crust and upper mantle collectively are called the lithosphere.  Color and label the Athenosphere (middle mantle) light orange.  Label the convection currents.  Color and label the Mesosphere (Lower Mantle) dark orange.  Draw a parenthesis for the entire mantle and label the thickness. (Label as Semi-Solid)  Color and label the outer core reddish-orange. (Label the thickness) (Label as Liquid)  Color and label the Inner core Dark red. (Label the thickness) (Label as Solid)  Draw an arrow from the crust towards the core labeling – Pressure, density, temperature Increase. 1. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences below. Earthquakes Core Plates Volcanoes Mantle Crust Boundaries The outer layer of the earth is called the __________________. It is made up of tectonic ________________. Just underneath the crust is the _____________________ and right in the middle of the earth is the _____________. Colliding plates produce _______________________ and _____________________ at the plate ___________________________. 2. Draw a line to form six correct sentences from the fragments below. The crust Is made of iron and lies at the center. Plate boundaries are under the oceans. The core is between the crust and the core. The mantle carry the continents. Oceanic plates is a thin rocky layer at the surface. Continental plates are where many earthquakes happen. Circle the correct answer. 3. T or F – The earth has an iron mantle. 4. T or F – The crust is made of tectonic plates. 5. T or F – The crust and the inner core are solid. 6. T or F – The mantle surrounds the iron core. 7. T or F – Oceanic plates lie under the beach. 8. T or F - The Earth’s crust includes both the ocean floor and dry land. 9. What is the earth’s crust made of? ___________________________, __________________________________ 10. Name the two types of Earth’s crust. ___________________________, _______________________________ 11. Which layer of the earth is the thickest? ______________________________How thick? __________________ 12. Which layer of the earth is the thinnest? _____________________________ How thick? __________________ 13. What makes up the lithosphere? _______________________________________________________________ 14. How are the asthenosphere and the lithosphere different? 15. Describe convection and why it’s important. 16. Which two metals make up both parts of the core? ______________________, ____________________ 17. Why have we not drilled or mined deeper into Earth? 18. How far is it to Earth’s center? (add up all the layers to get the answer) __________________miles

     

      11/04/2019

    Read the questions below and circle the letter of the correct answer. 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the Earth’s layers? a. Inner core b. Crust c. Outer mantle d. Lower mantle 2. Starting with the outermost layer, what is the order of the Earth’s layers? a. Core, mantle, crust b. Crust, upper mantle, lower mantle, outer core, inner core c. Mantle, inner crust, core d. Crust, inner core, mantle 3. The core of the Earth is made up almost completely of which element? a. Iron b. Granite c. Sulfur d. Calcium 4. Which layer of the earth is the thickest? a. Mantle b. Core c. Crust d. All layers are the same thickness 5. Which of the earth’s layers is liquid? a. Lower crust b. Outer core c. Inner core d. mantle Label the layers of the earth.

    Read each statement below. If it is true, write a “T” in the blank; if it is false, write an “F”. ____1. The center of the Earth is made of molten rock. ____2. Most of the Earth’s heat is stored in the mantle. ____3. The outer core is liquid. ____4. Earthquakes occur when heat travels through the mantle and causes tectonic plates to shift. ____5. The thinnest parts of the Earth’s crust are its continents. ____6. Extreme pressure causes the inner core of the Earth to remain solid. ____7. The crust of the Earth is much cooler than its other layers. ____8. The Earth’s mantle is flexible and shifts under heavy loads. ____9. The core is where geologists look for oil, gas, and other resources. ___10. The crust is broken down into two parts: the upper and lower crust.

     

     

     

    11/1/2019

    Students will create their own study guide while preparing for the Earth's Layers Pre-Test.

    Use your textbook or lap top to create a vocabulary grid, temperature and layer graph to help you answer the questions.  This study guide is due on the day of the test.

    • What are the four layers of the Earth? (You need to know the location of each)
    • Which layer is the thinnest? The thickest?
    • Which layers are solids? Which are liquids?
    • What are the convection currents (in the mantle)? (see chapter 4 also). How do the convection currents affect the lithosphere
    • What are the 2 types of crust?
    • Which type of crust is the thickest? The thinnest?
    • What metals are found in the core?
    • Why is the core made of metal?
    • Is the crust uniform (the same) in thickness around the world?
    • What is the formula for density?
    • If the volume of a solid is 5 mL and the mass is 25 grams, what is the density of the solid?
    • How does density play a role in the structure of the earth? (Why are there layers?)
    • What are the 5 Earth systems?
    • What is a plateau?
    • What is a landform?
    • What is the lithosphere? The asthenosphere?
    • What 2 factors affect gravity?

     

    • How do temperature, pressure and density change as you go deeper into the Earth?
    • What is the most common landform?
    • Draw and label a picture showing the following layers of the Earth Asthenosphere inner core     lithosphere           lower mantle  Outer core                             upper mantle

     

     

    • Match the layer with its description:

     

    1. Asthenosphere
    2. inner core
    3. lithosphere
    4. lower mantle
    5. Outer core
    6. upper mantle

     

     

     

    10/31/2019

     

    Unit:  _Earth’s Interior____  

    Big Idea:  _ The Earth’s interior is made of different layers that have unique properties.

    Subconcept:  _ There are 3 main layers, each with their own characteristics.____

    Literacy Strategy(s):  Anticipatory Guide, Word Wall_& Notetaking____________________

     

    Lesson:  _Layers of Earth______________              Date Taught:  _10/31/ to 11/1/2019___

    Learning Objective(s):

    • Students will be able to recall the 3 layers of the Earth__________________
    • Students will be able to describe properties of each of the layers_________

    Standards:  ES.2.3

    Detailed Description of Lesson:

    • Handout Anticipatory Guide “Layers of Earth.”
    • Read over the directions to make sure students know what to do 1st.
    • Have students go through and answer the questions before reading.
    • Have students read either individually or as partners pages 20-23 in their text book.
    • After or during the reading, have students find evidence for their “correct answers” and evidence to disprove their “wrong answers.”  They need to record the page number, paragraph number, and provide the statement that gives the evidence.
    • Once students are done with corrections have them get in groups of 3 to discuss answers and change if needed.
    • As a class go over the answers and see what type of evidence the students used to back up their answers.
    •  If time remains, the students need to take notes on the sections they read—paying attention to the vocabulary words.  Also some students will be assigned word wall cards to fill out.

    Friday: Students will watch a short video about the structural layers of the earth. Students will write down each layer and a fact about each layer while watchng the video.

     

    Learners:

    • This lesson will be taught to 3 classes, each having approximately 28 students in 3rd period, 20 students in 4th period and 31 students in 7th period.
    • Among students, there are 2 ESL students who will need support in understanding some of the vocabulary associated with the lesson.

     S.L.O(s): 7-4-02 Describe the Earth’s structure.  Include crust, mantle, outer core, inner core

    G.L.O(s): C8- Evaluate, from a scientific perspective, information and ideas encountered during investigations and in daily life. D5-Understand the composition of the Earth’s lithosphere as well as the processes involved within and among them.

    SWBAT:  build a model to illustrate the structural layers of Earth, including the inner core, outer core, mantle, crust, asthenosphere, and lithosphere

    Engagement: Students will individually create their own model of the Earth including each structural layer. The students will be required to color code and label each layer within their model.

     

     

     

    10/28/2019

    OBJECTIVES

    Students will be able to... Identify Kepler's 3 laws of planetary motion.

    Students will be able to... apply Kepler's laws to their own solar system.

    STEPS

    Monday: Intrdouction to Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion (Hook)

    Tuesday: Understanding Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion (Direct Instruction)

    Wednesday: Investigating Kepler's 2nd Law (Guieded/Independent Investigation)

    Thursday: Investigating Kepler's 3rd Law (Guided/Investigation Investigation)

    Friday: Test

     

    Lesson summary

    Students will learn about planetary transits, within and outside our solar system, and how they can be explained by Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Through an interactive lesson, they will explore how astronomers measure changes in light intensity during transits and use that data to detect and describe exoplanet systems. Students will analyze light curves and relate Kepler’s third law to properties of some exoplanets. This lesson works well as a component within a larger unit on Kepler’s laws.

    Grade level: 9–12 

    Standard: ESS1.B Earth and the Solar System

    • Kepler’s laws describe common features of the motions of orbiting objects, including their elliptical paths around the Sun. Orbits may change due to the gravitational effects from, or collisions with, other objects in the solar system. (HS-ESS1-4)

    Time allotment

    • Three 45-minute class periods

    Learning objectives

    • Students will be able to apply Kepler’s laws to construct explanations about planetary transits.
    • Students will be able to interpret light curve data to make inferences about an exoplanet’s orbital properties.

    Prep for teachers

    Before the Lesson:

    • Arrange to have computer access for students to work individually or in small groups.
    • Preview the interactive lesson to gain familiarity with the content and functionality and to anticipate students’ questions. Handouts for the interactive lesson are available in the Analyzing Light Curves of Transiting Exoplanets support materials.

    Supplies

    Handouts:

    Media Resources

    Next: Procedure 


    Learning activities

    Engage

    1. Activate students’ prior knowledge about planetary orbits by asking questions such as the following:
      • How do planets move?
      • How do we know planets orbit?
      • How do the objects in our solar system differ in their orbits? For example, compare the orbits of Mercury (closest to Sun) and Neptune (farthest from Sun) or of a planet and a comet.
    2. Explain that a transit occurs when one celestial body appears to cross in front of another as seen by an observer. A solar eclipse is a kind of transit that can be observed on Earth. In the case of a solar eclipse, the Moon crosses between Earth and the Sun, blocking the Sun from view. In planetary transits, a planet is seen to move across the face of its star. From Earth’s vantage point, transits of two planets within our solar system are possible—those of Mercury and Venus.
    3. Have students observe evidence of these transits within our own solar system by viewing the Mercury and Venus Transits resource. Note that the videos have been accelerated. Each transit lasts for several hours, from first point of “contact” with the Sun’s edge on the left, to the last point of contact when the planet moves off the other edge on the right.
    4. Elicit student questions about transits. Have them consider questions such as the following:
      • How are transits and orbits related?
      • How does a transiting planet affect the amount of light observed coming from the Sun? Do you think a reduction in light can be measured?
      • What might observations of transits tell us about the orbit of a planet?

    Explore 

    1. Students will now explore planetary transits that occur outside our solar system. Have students interact individually with the Analyzing Light Curves of Transiting Exoplanets interactive lesson: they will learn about the “transit method,” one of several ways that astronomers use to search for extrasolar planets. By observing regular changes in the brightness of a distant star as an exoplanet passes in front of it, the transit method has been highly effective in detecting the existence of worlds beyond our own.

      Page-specific notes:
      • Page 2: After students have taken their notes, ask them to share their thoughts. They should be able to make the connection that the dip in brightness occurs when the planet is in front of the star.
      • Page 3: Point out that the y-axis origin on the graph is not zero.
      • Page 4: Visualize It: There are three transit events in the light curve shown.
      • Page 5: Visualize It: Student diagrams should show a deeper curve for the bigger planet (blue) and a narrower curve for the faster planet (orange).
      • Page 6: Teacher notes: In the naming of Kepler-discovered objects, the star system is followed by a number and letter denoting the order of discovery. For example, the Kepler-90 system consists of the star Kepler-90 and its eight planets: b, c, d, e, f, g, h, and i. Kepler-90d, then, was the third planet in the system to be discovered.
      • Page 7: Teacher notes: TRAPPIST-1, an ultra-cool dwarf star, is named for the ground-based Transiting Planets and Planetesimals Small Telescope at La Silla Observatory in Chile, through which the initial observations were made. The particular TRAPPIST-1 data on this page comes from the Spitzer Space Telescope. Along with other ground-based telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope, the Kepler Space Telescope is also making measurements on the system, exemplifying the collaborative and corroborative nature of how astronomers use different instruments and methods to confirm and refine observations.

        Sample answers: 1. TRAPPIST-1b is bigger than TRAPPIST-1d. Because the dips for 1b are deeper, 1b causes a greater drop in brightness when it transits the star. 2. As oribital period increases, the transit duration increases. 3. The farther away the transiting body is from the star, the greater the orbital period. It takes longer for a planet that is farther away to travel in its orbit, so a transit lasts longer. 4. TRAPPIST-1b is closest to the star. It takes the fewest number of days to complete one orbit and the least time to transit the star. 5. TRAPPIST-1h is farthest from the star. It takes the most number of days to complete one orbit and the longest to transit the star.
      • Page 8: Arrange It: Planet “Red” is in the innermost orbit. Planet “Purple” is in the outermost orbit. Planet “Blue” is in the middle orbit.

        Take Notes: Student answers should include the kinds of information astronomers may observe or deduce from a light curve, such as orbital period, relative planet size, number of planets, and even further planet properties if host star properties are known. Students should refer to some of the media from the lesson to support their answers. 

    Explain

    1. After students complete the interactive lesson, have them learn more about NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope, which has detected thousands of exoplanets using the transit method. Watch How Does the Kepler Telescope Work?

      Teacher notes: Launched in 2009, the Kepler mission was operational for four years and was extended by the K2 mission in 2014. During the four years of continuous monitoring, Kepler observed over 150,000 stars (simultaneously) in the Cygnus-Lyra region of the Milky Way. K2 monitors a smaller star field, but surveys different swaths of the galaxy. By spring 2018, the K2 mission had reached 300,000 targets.
    1. Share with students that to date, the Kepler and K2 missions combined have observed hundreds of thousands of stars, identifying over 5,000 candidate exoplanets, over 2,500 of which have been confirmed as planets. Although other methods are also used to detect exoplanets, the transit method has contributed the majority—over three-quarters—of discoveries from all methods combined. The number of total confirmed exoplanets (all detection methods) surpassed 3,700 by May 2018.

      Teacher notes: The NASA Exoplanet Institute maintains a publicly accessible online catalog that provides astronomical data on exoplanets and their host stars. Interested students may be directed to search for this resource, the NASA Exoplanet Archive, for more examples of exoplanet systems or data. The archive is continually updated as new exoplanets are discovered. Be sure to check the archive for the most current tally of exoplanets.
    1. Explain to students that transit studies are based on an understanding of planetary orbits, described early in the 17th century by the astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kepler. Use the orbits of various artificial Earth satellites as tangible examples to introduce or further support an understanding of Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion.

      As a class, study the visualizations showing orbits of various satellites in the Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion Described Using Earth Satellites resource, where variations in orbital distance, period, and speed are readily observable. Have students study closely the orbits of the various satellites and discuss their observations. Guide the discussion with questions such as:
      • Study the introductory animation (timecode ~0:00–0:15) of the hundreds of artificial satellites currently orbiting Earth.
        • How do the orbits vary in shape?
        • What do you notice about the orbital velocities? Do the satellites vary in speed? How do the speeds vary?
        • What general patterns can you notice about satellites that orbit very close to Earth and those farther away?
      • Focus on the subset of five satellites (MMS-1, GOES-15, Van Allen-A, LAGEOS-1, ISS).
        • Do the satellites move at the same speed along all portions of their orbits? At which points in their orbits do satellites travel the fastest? The slowest?
        • Which satellites orbit Earth in the shortest amount of time? Which take the longest?
        • How do satellite orbits demonstrate Kepler’s first law? Where is Earth located relative to a satellite’s orbit?
        • How does the comparison of the two orbits demonstrate Kepler’s second law?
        • How does Kepler’s third law apply to the satellites? How does average distance from Earth relate to the time it takes a satellite to complete one orbit?

    For background information about the satellites and further ways to engage students with the visualization, refer to the background essay and teaching tips of the Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion Described Using Earth Satellites resource.

    1. Before proceeding in the lesson, have students communicate Kepler’s laws by writing in their own words and/or using sketches. First, have students use the case of satellites orbiting Earth and then draw parallels to planets orbiting the Sun. Finally, have them construct an explanation for how Kepler’s laws can explain the motion of exoplanets around other stars.

      Kepler’s laws as they apply to planets are summarized below for reference:
      • Kepler’s first law (the law of ellipses): All planets move in elliptical orbits, with the Sun at one focus.
      • Kepler’s second law (the law of equal areas): A line that connects a planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.
      • Kepler’s third law (the law of periods): A planet farther from the Sun has a longer path and travels more slowly than a planet that is closer in. Or, mathematically speaking, the squares of the orbital periods of the planets are directly proportional to the cubes of the semi-major axes of their orbit: P= a3where P is period in years and a is distance in astronomical units (au).

        Emphasize to students that while Kepler formulated the laws for planets around our Sun, they apply to any orbiting system, such as moon–planet, satellite–planet, and extrasolar planet–star systems. A fuller mathematical relationship of Kepler’s third law, which accounts for mass of the host star (assuming that it is greater than the mass of the other body) is P= a3/Ms   where Ms is the mass of the star in solar masses.

    Elaborate

    1. Return to the phenomena of transiting exoplanets. Reemphasize that as with all objects within our own solar system, extrasolar systems follow the same physical laws of the universe: exoplanets orbit a host star. (Sometimes a system may consist of two or more stars!) As students saw in the interactive lesson, much information can be learned about an exoplanet from transit data. Combined with data from other methods and mathematical models such as Kepler’s laws, astronomers can further characterize the properties of the planetary system. For example, the size of a planet can be calculated if the size of the host star is known, and the distance of an exoplanet from its host star can be calculated by using Kepler’s third law.
    2. Guide students in making further connections between transit studies and Kepler’s laws. Using evidence gathered in prior sections, have students construct explanations to answer the following:
      • How are light curves useful in determining the orbital period of a planet?
      • How does Kepler’s third law help predict the sequence of planets in a multi-planet system, if the orbital periods of the planets are known?
    1. Now, have students determine the orbital distance of sample exoplanets using period data from light curves and Kepler’s third law graphs by completing the exercise in the handout, Determining Orbital Distance of Exoplanets Using Kepler’s Third Law Graphs. Students will need to view the light curves (pp. 2–3) in color to complete the table and questions on page 1. If printing in color is not feasible, print out page 1 for students to fill out, but arrange for students to view the light curves on computers (or project the pages for the class). Point out that the y-axis on the light curves indicates the change in a star’s brightness as a percentage decrease and therefore shows negative values.

      Teacher notes: The graphs represent data that have been rounded from more precise astronomical data. Also, students may interpret dips in brightness on the graphs slightly differently. Student answers therefore need not match each other or the answer key exactly, but should be in general agreement with the answers provided. All light curves are based on real data, except for the “Mystery” planets, which are based on simulated data.

      Actual values from NASA Exoplanet Archive (except for “Mystery”) provided for reference:

    Planet

    Orbital Period

    Orbital Distance

    Kepler-1b (TrES-2)

    2.47061317±0.00000009 Earth days

    0.0367+0.0014-0.0013 au

    Kepler-2b (HAT-P-7b)

    2.2047372±0.0000011 Earth days

    0.03676±0.00019 au

    Kepler-3b (HAT-P-11b)

    4.8878162±0.0000071 Earth days

    0.0530 +0.0002-0.0008 au

    Mystery b

    1.00 Earth year; 365 Earth days

    1.00 au

    Mystery c

    0.66 Earth years (~241 Earth days)

    0.76 au

    Kepler-9b

    19.24 Earth days

    0.140±0.001 au

    Kepler-9c

    38.91 Earth days

    0.225±0.001 au

     

    Sample answers:

    1) Shortest period: Kepler-2b; longest period: Mystery b

    2) The orbital period of a planet increases as its orbital distance increases.

    3) Mystery b

    4) Both the Mystery and Kepler-9 systems contain two planets. Mystery’s planets are relatively far from their star and have relatively longer orbital periods than the Kepler-9 planets. Kepler-9 planets are much closer to their star and have very short periods.

    5) The time scales used for the light curves range over tens and hundreds of days—long enough to show multiple transit events. If the x-axis were scaled to show a single transit event, the shape of the dip would be more visible.

    Evaluate

    1. Distribute the handout, Kepler Exoplanet Systems, which contains a graphic of a small subset of extrasolar systems discovered by the Kepler mission. Have students study the diagrams and answer the questions that follow.

    Sample answers:

    1a) Greatest number of planets: Kepler-11. In this system, the planets closer in to the star would have shorter orbital periods than the planet farthest away from the star. During its orbit, the speed of a planet would be faster when it is closer to the star and slower when it is farther away.

    1b) The innermost planet of the Kepler-10 system would have the shortest period, while that of Kepler-27 would have the longest. The orbital period of the innermost planet of Keper-11 would be somewhere in between. According to Kepler’s third law, the farther away a planet is from its star, the longer its orbital period.

    2a-c) The shape (depth and width) of the light curves should be to scale relative to one another. Kepler-30b should have the shortest transit duration and shallowest dip. Kepler-30c should have the greatest dip. Kepler-30d should have the longest transit duration. 

    Extension

    1. If time allows, students may further analyze graphs related to exoplanet discoveries and data by accessing the Data Plots of Exoplanet Orbital Properties media gallery. Encourage students to make connections between the graphs and various factors in Kepler’s laws.

      Point out to students that the axes on these graphs are logarithmic, rather than linear. Remind students that on a log scale, each increment represents an increase by a factor of 10, which is useful when the range of values is particularly wide (such as the orbital periods in this case). Further information on the graphs can be found in the background essay for the resource. 

    10/25/2019

    Test

    Objective: Collaborative Testing 

    Expected Outcome: When students discuss questions and possible answers, they intensely engage with the content, which increases the learning potential of a test or an exam experience. The activity develops cooperation and communication skills. Working with other students decreases exam anxiety, particularly for those students whose levels of anxiety compromise their ability to perform and to aid students with poor english skills.

    Test

    1. What is the formula for Kepler's second law?
    2. What causes Kepler's second law?
    3. Illustrate Kepler’s 2nd law
    4. What does Kepler's 2nd law say?
    5. Why is Kepler's second law true?
    6. How does energy conservation explain Kepler's 2nd law?
    7. What factor affects a body's gravitational pull?
    8. An ellipse is drawn around two points is called
    9. When a planet orbits the Sun, one of the foci of the elliptical orbit is 
    10. The place where a planet is closest to the Sun as it orbits the Sun is called the
    11. A planet moves fastest during its orbit around the Sun when it is
    12. What has an eccentricity of zero
    13. The point in the Earth's orbit when it is furthest from the sun is called 
    14. When the distance between foci is increased, what happens to the shape of the ellipse
    15. Kepler's First Law states that a planet moves on an ellipse around the sun. Where is the sun with respect to that ellipse?
    16. What is the eccentricity of an ellipse? Give a description (words, not formulae).
    17. According to Kepler’s 2nd law, which section takes more time for the planet to travel?
    18. What happens to the ellipse when the eccentricity becomes zero?
    19. What happens to the ellipse when the eccentricity becomes one?
    20. What is Kepler's third law simplified?
    21. What are Kepler's 3 laws in simple terms?
    22. How do you solve Kepler's third law?
    23. How did Kepler find his third law?
    24. State Kepler’s 1st Law

    10/24/2019 Objective

    SWBAT: Answer questions concerning Kepler’s 2nd Law

    • Kepler's Second Law. An imaginary line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out an equal area of space in equal amounts of time. ... Nonetheless, the imaginary line joining the center of the planet to the center of the sun sweeps out the same amount of area in each equal interval of time.
    • The dot pattern shows that as the planet is closest the sun, the planet is moving fastest and as the planet is farthest from the sun, it is moving slowest. Nonetheless, the imaginary line joining the center of the planet to the center of the sun sweeps out the same amount of area in each equal interval of time.
    • 1. What is the formula for Kepler's second law?
    • 2. What causes Kepler's second law?
    • 3. Illustrate Kepler’s 2nd law                                                                   
    • 4. What does Kepler's 2nd law say?                                                                          
    • 5. Why is Kepler's second law true?                                                                                  
    • 6. How does energy conservation explain Kepler's 2nd law?
    • 7. What factor affects a body's gravitational pull?
    • 8. An ellipse is drawn around two points is called
    • 9. When a planet orbits the Sun, one of the foci of the elliptical orbit is 
    • 10. The place where a planet is closest to the Sun as it orbits the Sun is called the

    10/23/2019

    SWBAT: Illustrate and Label the following:

    • Planets orbit the Sun in a shape called a(n)___.
    • An ellipse is drawn around two points called___.
    • When a planet orbits the Sun, one of the foci of the elliptical orbit is ___
    • The place where a planet is closest to the Sun as it orbits the Sun is called the__
    • The place where a planet is farthest away from the Sun in its orbit around the Sun is called the
    • A planet moves Faster/Slower when it is farthest from the sun.
    • Kepler's first law states that the orbits of the planets are oval in shape or __
    • The farther away a planet is from the sun, the __ it takes it to orbit the sun once. 
    • Define and illustrate these two terms: perihelion and aphelion
    • A planet moves fastest during its orbit around the Sun when it is
    • What has an eccentricity of zero
    • The point in the Earth's orbit when it is furthest from the sun is called 
    • When the distance between foci is increased, what happens to the shape of the ellipse?

    10/17/2019

    Earth, Sun and Moon Test Review  

    1. How are lunar maria different than lunar highlands?

    Lunar maria are flat, dark patches on the moon.  They are caused by lava flow that cooled millions of years ago.  Lunar highlands are bright and rugged terrain.

    1. How did Earth obtain its moon?

    Giant impact theory descirbes that a large body struck the early Earth.  The debris from the crash formed the moon.  The moon is composed of material from both the Earth and the other body.

    1. Define Revolution

    The movement of a body around another body.  The moon revolves around the Earth.  The Earth revolves around the sun.

    1. Explain the effects of the Earth’s rotation

    Earth’s rotation causes day and night.

    1. Who revolves around who in the Earth, Sun and Moon system

    Earth revolves around the Sun.  The Moon revolves around the Earth.

    1. Define rotation

    The spinning of a body on its axis.  The Earth rotates once every 24 hours.  The moon rotates once every 27.3 days.

    1. Draw where the sun, Earth and moon must be for each of the 8 phases of the moon.

    10/16/2019

    SWBAT: Explain the following concepts  

    1. Explain and draw a diagram showing what causes seasons
    2. Explain direct and indirect sunlight
    3. Draw the sun, earth, and moon during each moon phase and write the name of each moon phase
    4. Explain what causes the phases of the moon
    5. Draw and explain solar and lunar eclipses, include umbra and penumbra
    6. 1Draw and explain what causes tides and draw the alignment of the Earth, Moon, and Sun at Spring
    1. What is the cause of day and night?
    2. How does the tilt of the earth cause the seasons?
    3. How does a solar eclipse occur?
    4. How does a lunar eclipse occur?
    5. How does the moon affect the earth?
    6. What is the origin of the moon (explain Collision Theory)?
    7. Why does the moon have phases?  What are they?
    8. What is the length of time for a complete rotation/revolution of the earth and the moon?
    9. What are the comparative sizes of the Sun, Earth, and Moon?
    10. What is the position of the earth in relation to the moon and the sun in order to create
      1. seasons in different hemispheres
      2. solar/lunar eclipses
    11.  Describe synchronous rotation. What effect does it have for us on Earth?

    The moon orbits the Earth at the same rate as it revolves.  This means that we will only see one side of the moon from Earth.

    12. Define an eclipse

    The darkening of a celestial body (sun or moon) due to the alignment of shadows.

    13. Explain AND draw a solar eclipse

     10/15/2019

    Lesson Overview This lesson plan explores how phases of the Moon and eclipses of the Sun and Moon are created by the relationship between the Earth, Moon and Sun.

    Students will be asked to match words to definitions, fill in the blanks, write the names of the phases of the moon, explain (short answer) WHY WE SEE THE MOON and THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ROTATION AND REVOLUTION.

    • Draw a diagram of the 4 seasons using the sun and the earth (tilted). Label each solstice and equinox and write the date they occur on.
    • Draw and label a solar and lunar eclipse using the following terms in each: Umbra, Penumbra, Partial Eclipse and Total Eclipse.
    • Describe how the length of daylight changes from the Equator to the North Pole on the date shown and explain the reasoning for your answer

    10/14/2019

    Phases of the Moon

    Introduction: Lunar Cycle, Why The Moon Change Shapes, 8 Phases Of The Moon, Learning Video.

    H.E.2B.2 (Moon Motions) 

    The features of the moon, like size, orbital radius, and makeup, in order to compare it to other moons in the solar system and its effects on the planet it orbits. 

    SWBAT: Determine the size of the Moon relative to the planets and other moons

    SWBAT: Determine the orbital radius of the Moon to the relationship of the Earth

     

    10/10/2019 to 10/19/2019

    In this unit of study, students develop models to describe the interactions that occur within and between major Earth systems and conduct research to learn how humans protect the Earth’s resources.

    Foundational to this unit of study is the understanding of a system, its components, and the interactions that occur within the system. Students can think about Earth’s major systems, identifying the components and describing the interactions that occur within each. For example:

    • The geosphere is composed of solid and molten rock, soil, and sediments. Some processes that occur between the components of the geosphere include erosion, weathering, deposition, sedimentation, compaction heating, cooling, and flow. These processes cause continual change to rock, soil, and sediments.
    • The hydrosphere is composed of water in all its forms. Water, unlike the vast majority of earth materials, occurs naturally on the Earth as a solid, liquid, or gas, and it can be found on, above, and below the surface of the Earth. Some processes that occur in the hydrosphere include evaporation, condensation, precipitation, run-off, percolation, freezing, thawing, and flow. These processes cause water to change from one form to another in a continuous cycle.
    • The atmosphere is a critical system made up of the gases that surround the Earth. The atmosphere helps to regulate Earth's climate and distribute heat around the globe, and it is composed of layers with specific properties and functions. This system, composed mainly of nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, also contains small amounts of other gases, including water vapor, which is found in the lowest level of the atmosphere where weather-related processes occur. In addition to weather processes, radiation, conduction, convection, carbon cycling, and the natural greenhouse effect are processes that occur in the atmosphere.
    • The biosphere comprises living things, including humans. Living organisms can be found in each of the major systems of the Earth (the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere). Some processes that occur within the biosphere include transpiration, respiration, reproduction, photosynthesis, metabolism, growth, and decomposition.

    As students become more comfortable with describing each system in terms of its components and interactions, they should begin to think about and discuss the interactions that occur between systems. Students will discover that any interactions that occur within a system affect components of other systems. Students will develop models that describe ways in which any two Earth systems interact and how these  interactions affect the living and nonliving components of the Earth. Some examples include:

    • The influence of oceans on ecosystems, landform shape, or climate.
    • The impact of the atmosphere on landforms or ecosystems through weather and climate.
    • The influence of mountain ranges on wind and clouds in the atmosphere.
    • The role of living organisms (both plants and animals) in the creation of soils.

    As a class, students will brainstorm additional examples. They can use any type of model, such as diagrams or physical replicas, to describe the interactions that occur between any two systems, and they can choose to enhance the model with multimedia components or visual displays.

    Once students have an understanding of the components and interactions that occur within and between Earth’s major systems, they will gather information about the ways in which individual communities use science ideas to protect Earth’s resources and environment. Students can work individually, in pairs, or in small groups to conduct research using books and other reliable media resources. They should paraphrase and summarize information as they take notes, then use their information to support their finished work. Students’ research should help them determine:

    • How human activities in agriculture, industry, and everyday life have had major effects on the land, vegetation, streams, ocean, air, and even outer space
    • What individuals and communities are doing to help protect Earth’s resources and the environment.

    Students can share their work in a variety of ways and should provide a list of sources for the information in their finished work.

    Students will need time to conduct research, determine criteria for success, consider constraints on available resources, and design solutions based on the information they gather. Students will need access to reliable sources of information that will help them as they work through the design process. To help with this process, student will be provided with computers to use during class.

    10/09/2019

    Standard H.E.3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the internal and external dynamics of Earth’s geosphere.

     10/07/2019

    Standard: ES.B-1: The solar system consists of the sun and a collection of objects, including planets, their moons, and asteroids that are held in orbit around the sun by its gravitational pull on them

    Objective: SWBAT: 1. Explain the role of gravity in the solar system. 2. Explain the relationship between mass and gravity. 3. Predict the patterns of movement of objects in our solar system. 4. Accurately produce a 2D model of objects with varying masses that illustrates the relationship between gravity and mass.

    Students will watch the video on gravity. ● This should clear up any misconceptions about gravity and mass at this point in the lesson. ● Students complete question #5 on the Our Solar System and Gravity handout. PREPARE FOR TEST 10/08/2019

    10/04/2019

    When Will Time End?

    What explains Earth's past, its geological eras and its ancient creatures? And where did our world come from? How and when will it end? In the revolutions spawned by Copernicus and Darwin, we began to see time as an arrow, in a universe that's always changing.

    SWBAT: That understanding time in cyclical terms connects us to the natural world, but it does not answer the questions of science.
     
    SWBAT: Discover Earth’s past, its geological eras and its ancient creatures
     
    SWBAT: Understand where did our world come from; How and when will it end

    10/03/2019

    Student will have class time to work on their planet booklets

    SWBAT: Describe what Edwin Hubble discover about galaxies that allowed him to determine the expansion rate of the universe?

    Edwin Hubble, the Expanding Universe, Hubble's Law ...

    https://www.youtube.com › watch
     
    Feb 27, 2016 - Uploaded by npatou
    Edwin Hubble, the Expanding Universe, Hubble's Law. Astronomers of the 20th ... A Science Odyssey ...

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2MLlVCWi3jA

    10/02/2019

    Students will be given class time to work on their planet booklets

    Reading, asking and giving information about the Solar System, speaking about distances, colours

    Standard: H.E.3A.1 Develop and use models of Earth’s solar system to exemplify the location and order of the planets as they orbit the Sun and the main composition (rock or gas) of the planets.

    Standard H.E.2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure, properties, and history of the observable universe.

    LEARNING TARGETS "I can"                                                                                                                                                              __evaluate the characteristics of a planet as it relates to distance from the Sun, size, composition, and movement.    __design and construct a relative scaled-model that can demonstrate the planet size in relationship to the Sun and the Earth. ____compare and contrast the physical characteristics of meteoroids, meteors, asteroids, and comets.                                  ____describe the effects of meteoroids on the Earth's surface.

    Essential Questions  What are the basic components of the Solar System?  What are the unique characteristics of each planet in the Solar System?

    Science/Math Process Skills: 

    1. Observation 
    2. Communication 
    3. Comparison 
    4. Organization 
    5. Application 

    Materials: 

    1. Computers wired for Internet access, with one computer for every two-three students.
    2. Student journals or notebook paper for each student. 
    3. Student worksheets and questionnaires

    H.E.2A.2 Use the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to classify stars and explain the life cycles of stars (including the Sun).

     09/30 to 10/01/2019

    Students were assigned planet booklet project. Due Oct. 3, 2019

    Standards for Unit H.E.2A.1 Construct explanations for how gravity and motion affect the formation and shapes of galaxies (including the Milky Way Galaxy). H.E.2A.2 Use the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to classify stars and explain the life cycles of stars (including the Sun).

    Learning Objective: The student will be able to classify galaxies and stars. Student will be able to use HR diagram and explain it.

    Instruction/ Procedures Foldable Galaxies Guided notes continued Gizmo HR diagram Part AB Gizmo HR diagram Part C Open note quiz PreRead-due Tues

    Homework Assessments Foldable due Wed Review notes-Quiz Friday Gizmo due Friday

    Project:

    Planet Poster Project: Guidelines

    Make a poster about a planet (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, or Neptune). No more than 3 students in a class period can have the same planet.  The poster should be on a large sheet of poster board, and should include a drawing or a picture of your planet. Make sure your poster contains all of the required information listed below for full credit.

    Poster Components: Students will create a planet poster for their quarter exam grade. Posters must be both colorful, accurate and demonstrate scholarship.  Each student will be graded according to the following: 

    1. Name of your planet
    2. Mythological origin of your planet's name
    3. Order of this planet from the sun (first, second, etc.)
    4. Average distance from the sun in miles, kilometers, AND astronomical units
    5. Period of rotation (length of day)
    6. Period of revolution (length of year)
    7. Average density, g/cm3. Compare the average density of your planet with Earth's average density.
    8. Temperature range, high and low in Fahrenheit AND Celsius
    9. Diameter in miles and kilometers. Compare the diameter of your planet with that of Earth.
    10. Compare the gravity of your planet with Earth's gravity. If an object weighed 100 pounds on Earth, how much would it weigh on your planet?
    11. List the most common elements present and their physical state (solid, liquid or gas). Compare these elements to those most commonly found on Earth.
    12. Describe the atmosphere (if any) on your planet. List the gases present and their percentages. Compare this to the Earth’s atmosphere.
    13. How many moons does your planet have? Describe any unique features found on your planet's moons. Are any of the moons similar to Earth’s moon? What are the names of your planet's moons? (If your planet has more than five moons, just name five.)
    14. What probes have been sent or are planned to be sent to your planet? Include names of the missions, when they were sent or are planned to be sent. What information have they found out about your planet?
    15. What does your planet look like? Describe its surface features, such as volcanoes, craters or canyons. Does your planet have rings? Describe the rings. Compare the planet’s surface features to those on Earth.
    16. Based on what you have learned, do you think life could exist on your planet? Think about what conditions a living organism would have to adapt to in order to survive on your planet when answering your question. Remember, life doesn't necessarily mean life as we know it on Earth!
    17. Cite all references for information and pictures. Can use EasyBib.com.

     Planet Poster Project Rubric Requirements

    #1-9 4 POINTS EACH 1. Name 2. Origin of name 3. Order from the Sun 4. Distance from the Sun (miles, km, and AU) 5. Period of rotation 6. Period of revolution 7. Density and Earth comparison 8. Temperature range (°C and °F) 9. Diameter (miles and km) and Earth comparison Comments: Points earned ______ /36 Requirements

    #10-16 7 POINTS EACH 10. Gravity compared to Earth and weight of 100 lbs 11. Most common elements and Earth comparison 12. Atmosphere percentages and Earth comparison 13. Moons names, descriptions, and comparison 14. Probes names, dates, and data 15. Appearance, surface features, and comparison 16. Life forms prediction Comments: Points earned ______ /49 Requirement

    #17 5 POINTS 17. Works cited Points earned ______ /5 Appearance 10 POINTS  Well-organized, colorful, professional  Includes relevant graphics  Minimal grammatical or spelling errors Comments: Points earned ______ /10

    TOTAL ______ /100

    09/27/2019

    Review of Red Shift Theory

    This lesson is about red shift, a phenomenon of waves. We'll go over the fundamentals of red shift, waves and the Doppler effect. Then we will talk about why red shift is important and how scientists are using it to answer questions about the universe..

    'Red shift' is a key concept for astronomers. The term can be understood literally - the wavelength of the light is stretched, so the light is seen as 'shifted' towards the red part of the spectrum.

    Red Shift

    To understand red shift, we also have to understand the spectrum of light. Light with long wavelengths are on the red end of the visible light spectrum, or light we can see. Violet light has the shortest wavelength of visible light, as shown below.

    When light is red shifted, it means that the wavelength is increasing due to movement of the wave source away from the detector, or person seeing the wave. In red shift, the light appears more red, because the wavelength is getting longer.

     
     

    09/26/2019

    Assessment

    In this assessment you'll be tested on:

    • Big Bang theory origins
    • Description of a singularity
    • Supporting evidence for the Big Bang Theory
    • Characteristics of cosmic background radiation

    09/25/2019

    TODAY’S PLAN   09/26/2019

    • I can identify the Big Bang Theory.
    • I can list pieces of evidence for the Big Bang Theory.

    TODAYS DO

    • We will complete an Etch-A-Sketch sheet for Big Bang Vocabulary.
    • We will create a Card Sort to help us remember the timeline for the Big Bang and associated vocabulary.

     

     

    09/24/2019

    Formation of the Solar System Nebular Theory
    Introduction: Nebular Theory Video.

    SWBAT: Create their own study guide (a) include outline    (b). 10 questions with correct answers

    Vocabulary: -nebula -protoplanets forming -solar system -protosun forming -moons forming -spinning planetary disk

    SUMMARY QUESTIONS: 1. Define Nebular Theory. 2. List the six stages of the nebular theory in order from beginning to end. 3. What force causes the gas cloud (also called a nebula) to begin to contract? 4. As the nebula begins to shrink and spin, what else does it begin to do? 5. What begins to take shape in the center? 6. At what point does the protosun become a star? 7. What do the largest clumps surrounding the protosun begin to form? 8. How do the inner protoplanets differ from the outer protoplanets? Why? 9. As the newly formed planets begin to cool, what do the smaller clumps begin to form? 10. How does the Nebular Theory explain why Pluto is so different from the other outer planets? 11. What is the asteroid belt? Where is it located? How does the Nebular Theory explain the formation of the asteroid belt.? 12. Near the very edge of the solar system, astronomers think that other clumps that did not form into planets (or moons or asteroids) form a huge icy cloud called the Oort Cloud. What do astronomers think this might be the home of?

    09/23/2019

    • Objective: To determine a pattern within the stars by plotting their temperatures and luminosities (brightness) on the H-R Diagram.
    • Materials: Seven colored pencils of the following colors: Blue, Light Blue, Gray, Yellow, Pale Yellow, Orange, and Red

    09/24/2019  Properties of Stars

    Our goals for learning:

    • How do we measure stellar luminosities?
    • How do we measure stellar temperatures?
    • How do we measure stellar masses?

    09/18/2019

    SWBAT

    Be able to read luminosity star chart in reference table

    Be able to calculate eccentricity

    • If the pins are placed closer together when figuring out eccentricity it is shaped more like a circle and less eccentric

     

    09/17/2019

    Objective: 09/17/2019 SWBAT define, describe and illustrate:

    Galaxies and Stars Vocabulary: Use your textbook to Define and give an example of each. Grade included with Interim. Students will email classwork home at end of class today.

    I. Define and give an example of each

    1.Variable star,  2. Spiral density  3. Fission 4. Fusion, 5. Dark matter 6. Local group 7. Luminosity 8. Nebula            9. Mass  10. Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram 11. Inertia, Main sequence 13. Magnitude 14. Density 15. Gravity, Binary star 17. Galaxy

    II. Describe and Draw a picture of the following galaxies and how they move: a. spiral, b. elliptical, c. irregular

     

    09/16/2019

    [PPT]
    Origin of the Universe
    Everything that exists in any place, all of space, matter, and energy in existence is called the universe! Big Bang Theory- theory to explain ...
     
    PPT]
    Formation of the Universe, Solar System & Moon
    The universe began with a hot explosion called the Big Bang. The aftermath ... First of all, we are reasonably certain that the universe had a beginning. Second ...
     
    The earth and beyond - SlideShare
    Sunlight comes from the sun to the Earth. The sunlight that warms our faces right now left the sun over eight minutes ago. The sun warms the ...
     

    09/16-20/2019

    Standards

    SKILLS

     

    2.5 – 3 weeks

    1: Students will explain the tools used by astronomers to study electromagnetic radiation to determine composition, motions, and other physical attributes of astronomical objects.

    a. Explain the challenges faced by astronomers due to the properties of light and the vast distances in the cosmos.

    b. Evaluate the types of telescopes used by astronomers for examining different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and compare and contrast the uses and advantages of each (e.g. radio, visible, gamma ray, reflector, and refractor).

    c. Mathematically apply Newtonian gravity to celestial bodies to determine their masses and explain their motion (e.g. Kepler’s Laws)

    d. Discuss how spectroscopy provides information about the inherent properties and motions of objects.

    e. Quantitatively analyze data from telescopes (e.g. spectra, multi-wavelength photometry, and images) and/or other astronomical sources (e.g. tide tables, sky charts).

    2.5 – 3 weeks

    Students will describe the scientific view of the origin of the universe, the evolution of matter and the development of resulting celestial objects.

    a. Outline the main arguments and evidence in support of the standard cosmological model. (e.g. elements, solar systems, and universe)

    b. Describe the life cycle of a star and explain the role gravity and mass play in the brightness, life span, and end-stages of stars.

    c. Compare and contrast the major properties of the components of our solar system.

    4 weeks

    Students will describe and explain the celestial sphere and astronomical observations made from the point of reference of the Earth.

    a. Evaluate the effects of the relative positions of the Earth, moon, and sun on observable phenomena, e.g. phases of the moon, eclipses, seasons, and diurnal cycles.

    b. Describe how latitude and time of the year affect visibility of constellations.

    c. Predict visibility of planets (major and minor) in the solar system based on relative orbital motion.

    3 weeks

    Students analyze the dynamic nature of astronomy by comparing and contrasting evidence supporting current views of the universe with historical views.

    a. Evaluate the impact that technological advances, as an agent of change, have had on our modern view of the solar system and universe.

    b. Explain the relevance of experimental contributions of scientists to the advancement of the field of astronomy.

     

    2 weeks

    Students will evaluate the significance of energy transfers and energy transformations in understanding the universe.

    a. Relate nuclear fusion reactions and mass-energy equivalence to the life cycle of stars.

    b. Explain the relationship between the energy produced by fusion in stars to the luminosity.

    c. Analyze the energy relationships between the mass, power output, and life span of stars.

    d. Describe energy transfers and transformations associated with the motion and interactions of celestial bodies (e.g. orbits, binary pulsars, meteors, black holes, and galaxy mergers).

     

    2 weeks

    Students will explore connections between cosmic phenomena and conditions necessary for life.

    a. Characterize the habitable zone in solar systems and habitable planetary bodies in our own and other solar systems.

    b. Describe the tools and techniques used to identify extrasolar planets and explore extrasolar planetary atmospheres.

    c. Describe signatures of life on other worlds and early Earth.

    d. Explain how astronomical hazards and global atmospheric changes have impacted the evolution of life on Earth.

     

     

     

    Unit 1: Scientific Inquiry and Mapping

    09/12/2019

    Mass, Volume, and Density - YouTube

     

    09/10 and 11/2019

    METRIC CONVERSION

    Objective

    SWBAT predict the measurement values, accurately measure their selected items, and convert their measurements to a new unit using the metric system.

    Big Idea

    Collecting accurate data, by practicing the basics of metric measurements around room!

     

     

     09/09/2019

    SWBAT complete the following:

    Class Notes on Density

    Class notes on Unit Conversions

    Scientific Measurement Objective Worksheet 2

    1. Define Measurement
    2. List two things all measurements must have to be valid.

     

    1. Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative measurements.
    2. Distinguish between the accuracy and precision of a measurement.

    _____________________________________________________________________________________________Rewrite measurements below in scientific notation.

     

      1. .000758             
      1. 4 573 000          
      1. 0.03438              

     Identify the number of significant figures in the measurements below.

     

      1. 0.42 L             
      1. 78.00 m.           
      1. 320 g                 

     

    1. Apply the rules for significant figures in calculations to round off numbers below correctly on line 1 then on line 2 put them in scientific notation:

     Round off 8670 km to two significant figures               __________    __________

     Round off 0.01025 m to three significant figures.         __________    __________

     Round off 7.013 g to three significant figures               __________    __________

     Round off 0.003629 mm to three significant figures.    __________    __________

     List and define the common SI prefixes that are larger than the base.

    List and define the common SI prefixes that are smaller than the base.

    Explain why a milliliter and a cubic centimeter have the same volume, Hint – use a decimeter cube and liter to relate them to each other.

     

    1. Summarize the difference between the mass and weight of an object.

     

    1. Define density
    2. Calculate the density of an object from the experimental data below. SF SN U (show work)

    Example: An 18.0 g sample of a piece of metal has a volume of 3.2 mL.

     Define Specific Gravity

    Convert between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales. Examples:

      1. Convert 3°C to K.        _ Convert 280K to °C     ___

     Calculate the percent error of an experimentally determined measurement using data below.

    Example: The mass of an object known to be 1.25 g was experimentally measured as 1.20 g. Compute the percent error. SF SN U (show work)

    Accommodations (are built into every lesson-class assignment- test and home work) –504:  Power hour will be used as added time for student to complete assignments. Students may come 1st - 2nd or both 

    1. Preferential Seating
    2. Daily agenda and assignments on board
    3. Oral and written notes & directions with visual cues
    4. Structured schedule for assignment completion
    5. Assignments posted online
    6. extended time for any class assignment
    7. Students allowed a partner or group for some assignments.
    8. Extended time on tests and classwork if needed
    9. Planner signed daily if needed
    10. Flexible format for response
    11. Retakes of tests/quizzes to show mastery of a skill
    12. Handouts & notes provided in large print
    13. Distraction stimuli minimized & reminders to stay on task
    14. Accelerated Curriculum

     

    09/06/2019

    Unit 1 Review and CFU

     

    09/05/2019                  Objective: Wrap-Up…List the parts of an experiment

    • Complete: Follow the scientific method to label each part of your penny lab experiment.
    • Present your completed data tables and graphs for grade. Grade ______
    • In this experiment, what was your control group?
    • Identify the independent variable in the experiment.
    • Identify the dependent variable in the experiment.
    • Give an example of a hypothesis that is based on an observation of a natural phenomenon. Grade _________
    • Give an example of an experiment designed to address a specific hypothesis. Grade ______
    • Use your ruler and scale to calculate (1). Mass Volume and Density of a rectangle, (2). MVD of a square, (3) MVD of a tin can (4) MVD of cylinder
    • Accommodations (are built into every lesson-class assignment- test and home work) –504:  Power hour will be used as added time for student to complete assignments. Students may come 1st - 2nd or both 

      1. Preferential Seating
      2. Daily agenda and assignments on board
      3. Oral and written notes & directions with visual cues
      4. Structured schedule for assignment completion
      5. Assignments posted online
      6. extended time for any class assignment
      7. Students allowed a partner or group for some assignments.
      8. Extended time on tests and classwork if needed
      9. Planner signed daily if needed
      10. Flexible format for response
      11. Retakes of tests/quizzes to show mastery of a skill
      12. Handouts & notes provided in large print
      13. Distraction stimuli minimized & reminders to stay on task
      14. Accelerated Curriculum

    09/04/2019

    TTL (Table Top Labs) Water Drops on a Penny

    Objective: Order and display tap water penny data using line segment and histogram depicting all five penny years (1981…etc.) Due at end of class today.

    09/03-06/2019

    SWBAT answer the following questions: Why do water droplets bead when dropped on a waxy surface? Why can some insects walk on water? These observations can be attributed to the high surface tension of water. Surface tension is the result of attractive forces between molecules. Water’s large contribution to life on Earth depends on its unique properties. Without it, life on Earth would be impossible.

    Learning Objectives After this lesson, students should be able to:                                                                  *Give an example of a hypothesis that is based on an observation of a natural phenomenon.                          *Provide an example of an experiment designed to address a specific hypothesis.                                                    *Distinguish between the variable and controlled conditions in an experiment.

    Concepts • Cohesion • Polarity • Surface tension • Surfactants                                                                Materials Beaker, 50-mL Pipets, disposable, 2 Dish soap, liquid Water, tap Paper towels Pennies,

    Safety Precautions Although this activity is considered nonhazardous, please follow all laboratory safety guidelines. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water before leaving the laboratory.

    Procedure: Part A.

    1. Rinse a penny in tap water. Dry thoroughly with a paper towel.     
    2. 2. Place the penny on a fresh paper towel.                                                                                               
    3. 3. Fill a beaker with 25 mL of tap water.                                                                                                      4. Using a pipet, slowly drop individual droplets of water onto the surface of the penny.                                  5. Count each drop until the water begins to spill over the sides of the penny. Record your observations in a data table.                                                                                                                                               Note: Watch the penny from above rather than from the side while making observations.                              6. Repeat steps 1–5 for a total of 5 trials. Thoroughly dry the penny between each trial.

    Part B.

    1. Rinse a new penny in tap water. Dry thoroughly with a paper towel.                        
    2. Place the penny on a fresh paper towel.                                                                                               
    3. Fill a beaker with 25 mL of tap water. Add 2 drops of liquid dish soap to the beaker and stir.                       
    4. Using a fresh pipet, slowly drop individual droplets of soapy water onto the surface of the penny, as done in Part A.                                                                                                                                                  
    5. Count each drop until the water begins to spill over the sides of the penny. Record your observations in the data table.                                                                                                                                              Note: Watch the penny from above rather than from the side while making observations. Stir soap solution between each trial.                                                                                                                                    6. Repeat steps 1–5 for a total of 5 trials. Rinse the penny in water and dry thoroughly between each trial.      7. Average the number of drops the penny holds for Part A and Part B.

    Sample Data Table The Scientific Process

    Observing

    • Initial Observation: Observe surface tension by seeing how many drops of water can fit on a penny. Number of Drops ___________

    Questions about observations (forming a hypothesis)

    • Question: How does soap affect the water's surface tension?
    • Develop a hypothesis that answers the experimental question. Write your hypothesis below. (Most hypotheses are “if, then” statements.  For example, “If we give a plant Miracle Grow, then it will grow taller”.  Write an “if, then” statement for this hypothesis”)

    Testing the hypothesis

    • Test your hypothesis by comparing the number of drops of tap water that can fit on a penny to the number of drops of soapy water that can fit on a penny. Because water drops may vary depending on how well you drop the water, it is best to run many trials and take an average.

    Record and analyzing data: Record your data in your data table.

    Once you have collected your data, represent it in a graph here.  Make sure that you include an appropriate title and labels.                                                                                                                                                    Forming Conclusions                                                                                                                               Analyze the data and draw conclusions. Write a paragraph below (using complete sentences) that explains how soap affects the surface tension of water, using your data to help you answer the question. Suggest a reason for your observations (Why did it happen). Support or reject your hypothesis.                                                                                                                                                 Post- Lab Analysis

    1. Why were many trials taken and averaged?
    2. In this experiment, what was your control group?
    3. Identify the independent variable in the experiment.
    4. Identify the dependent variable in the experiment.
    5. What if the experimental question was "How does sugar affect the surface tension of water?"
    6. Describe how you would answer this question using the scientific method.

     


     

    09/03/2019 Pre-Lab Question Chart

    Below is a list of questions for you to consider.

    Please write your answers in complete sentences. (You will revisit these questions after the lab, too.)

     

    1. What are advantages and/or disadvantages of using a triple-beam balance versus a digital scale for scientific measurement?
    2. What is a histogram?
    3. How do scientists use histograms to describe data?
    4. What does the mass of a penny tell us about the penny?

    This week Students will design a collect data evidence, determine results, write a justification and make a presentation using U.S. pennies.                                                                                                               Students will also learn Hydrogen bonds and surface tension give water some amazing properties. Let's use them to see how many drops of water fit on a penny.                                                                        There are two properties at work in this experiment: cohesion and surface tension. Cohesion is the attraction of like molecules to one another. In this case, the like molecules are the H20 molecules in the water drops. Surface tension is a special term we use to describe the cohesion between water molecules.

    Water’s cohesion and surface tension are special because of hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are formed by the hydrogen atoms of one molecule being attracted to the oxygen atoms of another molecule.

    The cohesion and surface tension of water becomes apparent when the drops of water you add to the penny reach the penny’s edge. Once the water has reached the edge, you begin to see a bubble or dome of water forming on top of the penny. The bubble shape is a result of the water molecules clinging to one another in an optimal shape (just like the bonds on the surface of a blown bubble).

    In the Drops on a Penny experiment, though, you’ll experience surface tension and cohesion at their finest. How many drops of water can you fit? There’s only one way to find out… by adding one drop at a time!

    Procedure

    1. Obtain 10 US pennies
    2. Wash and rinse each one in tap water. Dry them completely with a paper towel.
    3. Place the penny on a flat surface. The flatter the surface, the better this experiment is going to go.
    4. Use an eyedropper or pipette to draw up water.
    5. Carefully, drop individual drops of water onto the flat surface of the penny.
    6. Keep track of the water drops as you add them, one at a time, until water runs over the edge of the penny. You’ll probably be surprised by the number of drops you get on there!

    1st determine the mass of the 5 U.S. pennies you will use in this lab.

    2nd collect data from each penny such as minted year and observable appearance.

    3rd organize/represent their data into tables, histograms and other informational structures appropriate for reporting all data for each penny.

    4th consider the data, determine trends and research information and make a claim to historically explain trends in data from minted U.S. pennies.

    Hopefully, student data reports will support the knowledge that the metallic composition of the penny has changed over the years. Different compositions can have significantly different masses. A sufficiently random selection of hundreds of pennies across the class should allow the students to discover trends in the data to suggest the years in which the composition changed.

     

    Post-Lab Questions for you to consider.                                                                                                                           Below is a list of questions to answer after completion of your penny lab. Please write your answers in complete sentences.

     

    ____/ ____ points The most common penny mass in my penny set is ________ grams. How does this compare to the class data set?

     

    ____/ ____ points Please describe the histograms you created. Are there more pennies from more recent years or from prior years? Can you suggest an explanation for the mass distribution that you see?

     

     

    ____/ ____ points Which year is represented by the most pennies? _________ By the second most? ________

    By the third most? _________What would you graph instead of mass to make these answers more evident?

     

    ____/ ____ points What is your overall claim about the data you collected from your pennies?

     

    ____/ ____ points Number the steps and describe the methods you used to collect your data, organize your data and make these conclusions.

    ____/ ____ points Please describe the histograms you created. Are there more pennies from more recent years or from prior years? Can you suggest an explanation for the mass distribution that you see?

    ____/ ____ points Which year is represented by the most pennies? _________ By the second most? ________

    By the third most? _________What would you graph instead of mass to make these answers more evident?

     

     

    ____/ ____ points What is your overall claim about the data you collected from your pennies?

    ____/ ____ points Number the steps and describe the methods you used to collect your data, organize your data and make these conclusions.

    ____/2 points   My histogram data shows that

    ____/2 points One conclusion my histogram data helps me draw is

    ____/ ____ points the most common penny mass in my penny set is ________ grams. How does this compare to the class data set?

    1. What did you learn about mass calculations, data and mass that you didn’t know before the lab?

     

     

    LAB 2: How is the Surface Tension of Water Affected By Soap?

    Introduction: Surface tension refers to water's ability to "stick to itself". Surface tension can be measured and observed by dropping water (drop by drop) onto a penny. The number of water drops that can fit on a penny will surprise you.

    1. Initial Observation: Observe surface tension by seeing how many drops of water can fit on a penny. ____

    Experimental Question: How does soap affect the water's surface tension?

    Develop a hypothesis that answers the experimental question. Write this statement below.

    1. Test your hypothesis by comparing the number of drops of tap water that can fit on a penny to the number of drops of soapy water that can fit on a penny. Because water drops may vary depending on how well you drop the water, it is best to run many trials and take an average. Record your data in the table below. *Be sure to dry your penny between trials.

     

    Trial 1

    Trial 2

    Trial 3

    Trial 4

    Average

    Tap Water

     

     

     

     

     

    Soapy Water

     

     

     

     

     

    1. Communicationis an important part of science. Compare your data with 4 other groups.

     

    Group 1

    Group 2

    Group 3

    Group 4

    Average

    Tap Water

     

     

     

     

     

    Soapy Water

     

     

     

     

     

    Are there any groups that had significantly larger numbers than what you were able to get? Propose an explanation for why one group may have been able to get more drops on their penny than you.

    1. Analyze the data and draw conclusions.
    2. a) Identify the independent (manipulated) variable and the dependent (responding) variable in your experiment.
    3. b) Write a sentence that explains how soap affects the surface tensionof water based on the results of your experiment.
    4. Questioning: Now that you have an idea about how soap affects surface tension. What other questions can you develop (and even test) about surface tension. Write at least two follow-up questions that could be tested using the penny technique.

     

     

    08/29/2019

    TEST: Unit 1 (Standard H.E.1) 

    08/28/2019

    Full lab (Rm 301)

                In today’s lab we will be conducting an experiment using the scientific method.  We will be specifically looking at the surface tension of water which is water's ability to "stick to itself". Surface tension can be measured and observed by dropping water (drop by drop) onto a penny. The number of water drops that can fit on a penny will surprise you.

    Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?

    SWBAT

    • Record and tabulate measurements.
    • Organize observations.
    • Create tables and interpret data and informational text.
    • Write and present a lab report.

    Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?

    Students will be asked to create a histogram to reflect data collected during the lab. A histogram is a common data representation and graphical representation of a frequency table. It will be helpful for students to review the specific use of a histogram (as opposed to a bar or line graph).

    Students will be asked to use both triple-beam and digital scales to record precise measurements. A triple-beam balance is a type of balance commonly used in the laboratory to determine the mass (by weight comparison) of samples. To use the balance, you use sliding weights called riders on three beams, each with progressively small incremental amounts. A digital scale is a technology used to record mass. It will be helpful for students to review the distinct differences between these two measurement devices.

    Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?

    Students will use quantitative and investigative questions to guide them in this lab.

    Quantitative:

    What is the most common penny mass in your penny set? How does this compare to the class data set?

    How would you describe the masses of the pennies in your set? Be as specific as you can.

    CFU

    Analyze the data and draw conclusions. Write a paragraph (using complete sentences) that explains how soap affects the surface tension of water, using your data to help you answer the question. Suggest a reason for your observations (Why did it happen). Support or reject your hypothesis.

     Homework 

    1. Why were many trials taken and averaged?

     2. In this experiment, what was your control group?

     3. Identify the independent variable in the experiment.

     4. Identify the dependent variable in the experiment.

     5. What if the experimental question was "How does sugar affect the surface tension of water?" Describe how you would answer this question using the scientific method.

     

     

    08/27/2019

    PRACTICUM IN CLASSROOM      (Practice data collection. organizing and displaying data)                                                           

     Lab 1 - Density Determinations and Various Methods to Measure Volume

    Using the following Types of Data

    Scientists collect two different types of data: qualitative data and quantitative data.

    Qualitative Data: Qualitative data are descriptions in words of what is being observed. They are based on some quality of an observation, such as color, odor, or texture.

    Quantitative Data: Quantitative data are numeric measurements. The data are objective- they are the same no matter who measures them. They include measurements such as mass, volume, temperature, distance, concentration, time, or frequency.

    GOAL AND OVERVIEW

    This lab provides an introduction to the concept and applications of density measurements using the scientific method to create an experiement. The densities of braa cylinder and cap will be calculated from mass and volume measurements. To illustrate the effects of precision on data, volumes will be determined by three different methods: geometrically (measuring lengths); water displacement; and pycnometry. The composition of a ink cylinder and the volume of empty space within a hollow cylinder will also be found.

    Objectives of the Data Analysis

    • Determine volume by three different methods
    • Use measured volumes and masses to calculate densities
    • Use the relationship between mass, volume, and density to find desired unknown quantities
    • Evaluate results using error analysis

    Remember that the diameter is double the length of the radius. We already know that C = πd. If r is the radius of the circle, then d = 2r. So, C = 2πr.

     CFU: 

    1. Analyze  Give five examples of qualitative data that could be obtained from observing the cylinder.

     2. Analyze  Give five examples of quantitative data that could be obtained from observing the cylinder

    80/26-27/2019 (DAY 1 QQOI part 1.docx) (Day 1 PPT.pptx) (Day 3 CW.docx)(observation inference.pdf) (wrap up before quiz.pptx)

     
     
    08/26/2019 Introduction to Penny Lab: Today SWBAT design an experiement, collect data evidence, determine results, write a justification and make a presentation using U.S. pennies
     
    Instructional Time: 3 Hour(s) (Tuesday-Thursday)

     Monday: Pre-Lab Question Chart

    Below is a list of questions for you to consider.

    Please write your answers in complete sentences. (You will revisit these questions after the lab, too.)

    1. What are advantages and/or disadvantages of using a triple-beam balance versus a digital scale for scientific measurement?
    2. What is a histogram?
    3. How do scientists use histograms to describe data?
     
     
    Keywords: mass, penny, measurement, data
     
    • Students will work collaboratively to accomplish lesson objectives.
    • Students will use different color, standard and legal-sized paper (lined and unlined) to organize data.
    • Teacher will provide quick re-teach of vocabulary, unit conversions and use of scales to targeted group lacking the skill.
    • Students will create their own graphic organizers and charts labeled with appropriate categories for data collection.
    • Teacher will use proximity and individual assistance throughout lesson to aid students in need.
    Water Drops on a Penny

    Introduction: How many drops of water can the surface of a penny hold before the water spills over the side? This trivial matter will be used to illustrate the steps in the scientific method, and to show that even little things are not so simple as they might initially seem.

    The steps of the scientific method are:
    1. State the Problem or Ask a question 
    2. Get Background Information 
    3. Make Observations (survey, measure, count, weigh, look, listen, touch, taste, smell)
    4. Formulate a Hypothesis (Suggest an answer to your question based on what is known - this is an "educated guess")
    5. Design an Experiment (You must test your hypothesis under controlled conditions)
    6. Collect and Analyze Data (Interpreting the results of your experiment, often using statistics)
    7. Evaluate Hypothesis (Draw some conclusions. Solve the problem, answer the question)
      • Accept Hypothesis - You're done. You've answered the question.
      • Reject Hypothesis - Start over. Formulate a new hypothesis based on what you've learned.

    Materials:

    • eye droppers
    • pennies
    • finger bowls
    • water
    • dissecting scope (for detailed observations)
    • paper towels (for cleanup)

    Procedures:

    1) Make a prediction (just a guess since we have no data at this point) about how many drops of water will fit on the surface of a penny before it spills over.

    2) Perform some "pilot experiments". Remember that your results should be repeatable. Do everything exactly the same way at least 3 times. Are they repeatable?

    3) Suggest some of the factors that might be influencing the results. For example, did you always hold the dropper at the same height? Did you always use the same dropper? Did you always use the same penny? The same side?

    4) Eliminate as many sources of error as you can and repeat your experiment. What do you find? Can you make your results more consistent?

    You are now done collecting background information. It is time to formulate a hypothesis. A hypothesis must be testable, and it must be falsifiable. The question should be asked in such a way that your hypothesis must be either accepted or rejected. The question you will address is: "What is the factor which causes the most variability in the number of water drops that a penny can hold?"

    5) Pick a factor which you feel might be the cause of some of the variability in the number of water drops a penny can hold. For example, does the side of the penny (heads vs. tails) matter?

    6) Set up a null and alternate hypothesis related to the variable you selected. For example, my null hypothesis is that the side of the penny makes no difference. The alternate hypothesis is that the side of the penny does make a difference.

    H0: The number of water drops a penny can hold is not influenced by "side of penny".
    HA: The number of water drops a penny can hold is influenced by "side of penny".

    7) Design an experiment which tests your hypothesis. Describe it below.

    It is worth considering the method you will use to analyze your data. For example, what was your sample size? (How many times did you perform the experiment. How many pennies did you use? If you used only one penny, can you generalize your result to all pennies?) Is your test one-tailed or two-tailed? If you were flipping coins and looking for a bias towards heads, for example, you would use a one-tailed test. If you were looking for a bias from 50:50, it could go either towards heads or tails, so you would use a two tailed test.

    8) Conduct your experiment and collect data.

    9) Present your results in a table.

    10) Interpret your results. Is your alternate hypothesis accepted or rejected? Explain. 

     

    08/27/2019 Follow-up discussion on penny lab.

    Follow-up Discussion of the Water Drops on a Penny Lab

    What is the importance of replication? Why should an experiment be repeatable by an independent investigator? Why do results vary even when you try to keep everything the same? What factors did you vary (different pennies? side of penny? height of dropper? time of day?) What factors seemed to cause the most variation? What could you do to make your results more repeatable? What variables that you considered did not contribute much to the variation? How many drops can a penny hold? Why don't we all agree? What does it mean that our results vary? Why should the results be repeatable?


    In this lab, you found differences among (between) investigators and those differences were often large. Some people got results in the 50s, while others were usually in the 20s, for the number of water drops a penny could hold. You also found differences within replicates of the same experiment, when you did the same thing more than once though, often, those differences were smaller if you were good at using the same methods from one trial to the next. The variation there was often less than 5 but sometimes as much as 10 or more!

    We do multiple trials (this process is called replication) to make sure that our results are consistent across trials. This helps to eliminate anything that is due to chance. While your results from one trial to the next might not be identical, you should be able to get an average and put error bars around it, such as 23 drops plus or minus 4 drops, when done 20 times. If our internal process is not repeatable, that's not good. It should be. Why? Because we assume that if we hold everything important the same from one trial to the next, the results should be the same. Why? Because we assume that the natural laws that govern the universe are consistent from one moment to another. If we drop a ball, it should fall down today and do exactly the same thing tomorrow. If you can only do 20 push-ups today, you shouldn't be able to do 100 tomorrow!  If the laws of the universe are constantly changing, science wouldn't work. It would be like playing a sport where the rulebook is constantly being revised. Sure, you would get different results in outer space, but that's why we try to control for things as much as possible. Location matters. Some things will matter, and others won't. Time of day probably doesn't matter much, but who knows? Temperature or hardness (amount of dissolved minerals) of the water coming out of the tap might matter. What factor varies the most? Within one experimenter's results, it's probably height of the dropper and how consistently you can squeeze the bulb. With a mechanical pipette mounted to a stand at a pre-set height, we could do better. Between experimenters, the size of the opening on the dropper is likely a factor. How could we control for that? We would make sure different experimenters used the same brand of dropper. Wear on the surface of the penny is probably a small factor, but dropper is probably the most significant source of "error."

    What was our "null hypothesis"? That every trial should produce the same result, plus or minus a small error factor that we can't control. That everyone should get similar results. Clearly, that didn't happen. Before we could definitively answer the question of how many drops of water a penny can hold, we would need to get better at being consistent, both within trials by one experimenter, and between experimenters. Could we answer the question exactly? Probably not. But we might be able to say that with a mechanical pipette that dispenses 1 cubic milliliter of water per drop, held 5 cm above the penny, at 7000 ft. elevation, on this day of the year at this time of day, in Aiken, South Carolina, with distilled water and a 2010 penny, head side up, that the penny can hold an average of 27 drops, plus or minus 3 drops, and that the result is repeatable across 20 experimenters doing 25 trials each.

    Now, once we have our "baseline data," we can start testing. Does the heads side hold more than the tails side? Does year of penny matter? Do the results vary at sea level? What if we find that a 1955 penny holds 23 drops, plus or minus 4, and a 1975 penny holds 24 drops, plus or minus 3, and a 2010 penny holds 29 drops, plus or minus 4? That would indicate that a 1955 penny and a 1975 penny are not significantly different from one another, but both are significantly different from a 2010 penny. Why? Who knows! But that's the next question to try to answer. Maybe it's because modern pennies contain more zinc and less copper? We could test that by researching the year that the makeup of the penny changed. Would we know for certain that it was the metal makeup of the penny that caused it to hold more drops? No, but that factor is "correlated" with the difference. If we find that pennies with more zinc hold more water than pennies with less zinc, that's interesting. Maybe that's the cause, or maybe something else changed at the same time? Perhaps the ridge around the edge of the penny is higher on the newer zinc pennies? So although the zinc is correlated, it might not be the cause of the change. Can you see how this little experiment allows us to discuss a lot of details about how science works?

    What do we hope to learn overall?
    Hopefully, student data reports will support the knowledge that the metallic composition of the penny has changed over the years. Different compositions can have significantly different masses. A sufficiently random selection of hundreds of pennies across the class should allow the students to discover trends in the data to suggest the years in which the composition changed
     
     
    Standard HSE-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific inquiry, including the processes, skills, and mathematical thinking necessary to conduct a simple scientific investigation.

    Student Goal -To understand, explain, and identify the difference in quantitative and qualitative data. (Your grade will be based on the Performance Task and the Formative Assessment).

    SWBAT: Students investigate the difference between qualitative and quantitative measurements and observations. By describing objects both qualitatively and quantitatively, they learn that both types of information are required for complete descriptions. Students discuss the characteristics of many objects, demonstrating how engineers use both qualitative and quantitative information in product design.

    Scientific Method Practice                           

    Read the following paragraph and indentify the parts of the scientific method:

     

    A pharmaceutical company wanted to test a new drug developed to lesson the effects of the common cold. To test this drug, scientists tested fifty volunteers, each of whom was suffering the effects of a cold. Twenty-five of the people were given the drug, while the other twenty-five were given a placebo, a sugar pill. None of the participants knew who was which pill. All participants received a pill at 8:00 a.m. daily for the first three days of the study. All participants lived in the same environment, with the same climate, eating the same diet, and having the same level of activity. The severity of the cold, hence the effectiveness of the pill, was determined by the number of tissues each person used within a twenty-four-hour period. At the end of a seven-day period it was concluded that those with the sugar pill had their symptoms disappear as well as those who had taken the new wonder drug. The executive committee decided to produce the drug anyway thinking that the public would do anything to relieve the symptoms of a cold.

     

    1. State the Problem: _______________________________________________
    2. Hypothesis: ____________________________________________________
    3. Independent Variable: ____________________________________________
    4. Dependent Variable: _____________________________________________
    5. Control: ______________________________________________________
    6. Data: ________________________________________________________
    7. Is this data qualitative or quantitative? ______________________________
    8. Conclusion: ___________________________________________________
    9. Constants: ___________________________________________________
    10. For each of the following, decide if it is an example of a qualitative observation or a quantitative observation.

     Write L for Qualitative, T for Quantitative AND LT for both!!

     

    1. Sammi’s shirt is blue and black. ___
    2. There are 11 girls in this room. ___
    3. I smell the delicious scent of chocolate in the air. ___
    4. The science lab tables are black and rectangular. ___
    5. I see pink tulips all around the yard. ___

     

    1. Decide if the following are examples of observations or inferences.

     Write O for observation, or I for inference.

     

    1. The sky is blue. ____
    2. I think it might rain. ____
    3. The dog is chasing the cat. ___
    4. The dog must be frustrated with the cat. ___
    5. I see large rain clouds forming in the sky. ___
    6. I don’t like the song currently playing on the radio. ____

     

    1. Read the hypotheses below, and identify the independent (what you manipulate/change) and dependent variables (what you measure).

     

    1. If leaf color change is related to temperature, then exposing plants to low temperatures will result in changes in leaf color.

     

    Independent Variable-                                              Dependent Variable-

     

    1. If hatching brine shrimp is related to salinity (how salty the water is), then the greater the salt concentration, the higher the hatching rate.

     

    Independent Variable-                                              Dependent Variable-

     

    1. If a dog bothers a skunk, then it will get sprayed with toxic and noxious fumes.

     

    Independent Variable-                                              Dependent Variable-

     

    1. If skin cancer is related to exposure to ultraviolet light, then people with a high exposure to UV light will have a higher frequency of skin cancer.

     

    Independent Variable-                                              Dependent Variable-

    Description: Hands On Activity: Students examine the difference between qualitative and quantitative observations by doing a simple lab activity.Qualitative-vs-Quantititive-Observations

    Cooperative learner:
    Student listens to other members of group.

    Student does assigned task.
    Student encourages other group members to get work done.
    Student helps others when needed, but does not do the work of the other members.

    Explain:
    These are examples of quantitative observations. Anything you measure is quantitative. Quantitiative observations help us communicate specifics to others and provide a basis for comparisions.Qualitative observations provide information in which you used only your senses.

    Explain: 
    Quantitative observations made with instruments such as rulers, meter sticks, balances, and graduated cylinders or beakers, give us specific and precise information. Although approximations and comparisons are not as precise, they are also quantitative observations.

    Object

    Qualitative

    Quantitative

    1.

     

    1.

    2.

    1.

    2.

    2.

    1.

    2.

    1.

    2.

    3.

    1.

    2.

    1.

    2.

    4.

    1.

    2.

    1.

    2.

    5.

    1.

    2.

    1.

    2.

     

    Questions:

    1. Which item was most difficult to describe qualitatively? Why?
    2. Describe two qualitative and quantitative (approximate) features of something created by engineers.

     

    • Quantitative (measurable) Methods of Evaluation: “Tell me WHAT you learned.” Examples: questionnaires, revision questions, quizzes, and so on.
    • Qualitative Methods of Evaluation: “Show me HOW you can apply, synthesize, evaluate, and design what you’ve learned.” Examples: essays, focus groups, scenarios, projects, case studies, artefacts, personal experiences, introspection, visual texts, portfolios, direct observation, role play or simulation, and so on.

     

    Objective: Demonstrate the skills needed to plan and conduct an experiment to determine an answer to a
    question or solution to a problem.
    Qualitative Observations vs. Quantitative Observations Worksheet
    All of the observations in this worksheet were qualitative; that is, you observed a quality about an object (it smelled
    good, it was green, etc.). Another type of observation is quantitative, meaning that it can be described or measured in concrete numerical terms.
    The following observations are quantitative:
    There are 30 students in my class. I weigh 98 pounds. I ate a pound of potatoes.
    Determine which of the following statements are quantitative and which are qualitative.
    _____1. The cup had a mass of 454 grams.
    _____2. The temperature outside is 250oC.
    _____3. It is warm outside.
    _____4. The tree is 30 feet tall.
    _____5. The building has 25 stories.
    _____6. The building is taller than the tree.
    _____7. The sidewalk is long.
    _____8. The sidewalk is 100 meters long.
    _____9. The race was over quickly.
    _____10. The race was over in 10 minutes.
    A. Qualitative
    B. Quantitative
     
     _______________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________________

      We begin with the phrase “Students will investigate and understand.” This phrase was chosen to communicate the range of rigorous science skills and knowledge levels embedded in each standard. Limiting a standard to one observable behavior, such as “describe” or “explain,” would have narrowed the interpretation of what was intended to be a rich, highly rigorous, and inclusive content standard. “Investigate” refers to scientific methodology and implies systematic use of the following inquiry skills: observing; classifying and sequencing; communicating; measuring; predicting; hypothesizing; inferring; defining, controlling, and manipulating variables in experimentation; designing, constructing, and interpreting models; and interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data. “Understand” refers to various levels of knowledge application. In the Science Standards of Learning, these knowledge levels include the ability to: recall or recognize important information, key definitions, terminology, and facts; explain the information in one’s own words, comprehend how the information is related to other key facts, and suggest additional interpretations of its meaning or importance; apply the facts and principles to new problems or situations, recognizing what information is required for a particular situation, using the information to explain new phenomena, and determining when there are exceptions; analyze the underlying details of important facts and principles, recognizing the key relations and patterns that are not always readily visible; arrange and combine important facts, principles, and other information to produce a new idea, plan, procedure, or product; and make judgments about information in terms of its accuracy, precision, consistency, or effectiveness. Therefore, the use of “investigate and understand” allows each content standard to become the basis for a broad range of teaching objectives, which I will develop and refine to meet the intent of the Science Standards of Learning.

     

     H.E.1: The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.

    Show details

    Key Idea 1: The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomena in a continuing, creative process. For example: • show how our observation of celestial motions supports the idea of stars moving around a stationary Earth (the geocentric model), but further investigation has led scientists to understand that most of these changes are a result of Earth’s motion around the Sun (the heliocentric model)                     

    Key Idea 2: Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity. For example  • test sediment properties and the rate of deposition

    Key Idea 3: The observations made while testing proposed explanations, when analyzed using conventional and invented methods, provide new insights into phenomena. For example: • determine the changing length of a shadow based on the motion of the Sun

     

     08/20/2019

    spheres.

     

     

    Unit 2: Astronomy: Galaxy and Stars

    (Week 3, 4 Weeks)
     
    H.E.2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure, properties, and history of the observable universe.
    Show details
     
     
    (Week 5, 1 Week)
     
    (Week 6, 4 Weeks)

    H.E.2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure, properties, and history of the observable universe.

    Show details

     

    Universe a    
    Stars a    
    Earth-Moon a    
    Solar System a  

     

     

     O C T O B E R 2 0 1 9 18 Weather Make-Up Day, if needed (or Schools Closed) 21 Parent Teacher Conferences 23 Early Dismissal Day*/End of 1st Nine Weeks 29 Report Cards Issued 

    Unit 4: Earth's Geosphere: Inter/External Dynamics

    Unit 3 Review Sheet 

     
    (Week 10, 9 Weeks)
    H.E.3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the internal and external dynamics of Earth’s geosphere.

    Show details

    District CFA #2

    (Week 16, 1 Week)

     N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 9 25 Interim Reports Issued 27-29 Thanksgiving Holidays (Students & Staff)

    Unit 5: Earth's Geosphere: Human Impact

    (Week 18, 3 Weeks)
    H.E.3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the internal and external dynamics of Earth’s geosphere.
    Show details
     
     
     
     D E C E M B E R 2 0 1 9 16-19 Semester Exams 19 Last Day of Class before break 20-31 Winter Break (Students & Staff)
    (Week 21, 5 Weeks)
    H.E.4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the dynamic relationship between Earth’s conditions over geologic time and the diversity of organisms.
    Show details
     
     
    J A N U A R Y 2 0 2 0 1-2 New Year’s Day (Jan. 1)/Winter Break 3 Teacher Workday 6 Students Return from Winter Break 14 End of the 1st Semester 17 District Professional Development Day 20 Martin Luther King, Jr. Holiday 22 Early Dismissal Day* (Teacher Planning Time) 23 Report Cards Issued
      
    (Week 26, 5 Weeks)
     
     
     

    District CFA #3

     
     
    F E B R U A R Y 2 0 2 0 17 Presidents’ Day Holiday (Weather Make-Up Day) 20 Interim Reports Issued 26 Early Dismissal Day* (Teacher Planning Time) 28 Weather Make-Up Day, if needed (or Schools Closed)
     
    H.E.5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the dynamics of Earth’s atmosphere.

    Show details

    (Week 26, 1 Week)
     
     

    M A R C H 2 0 2 0 20 Teacher Workday 23 Weather Make-Up Day, if needed (or Schools Closed) 25 Early Dismissal Day*/End of the 3rd Nine Weeks

    Unit 8: Earth's Hydrosphere - Freshwater

    (Week 30, 5 Weeks)
     
    H.E.6: The student will demonstrate an understanding of Earth’s freshwater and ocean systems.
    Show details
     
     
    A P R I L 2 0 2 0 2 Report Cards Issued 6-10 Spring Break (Students & Staff)/Good Friday (April 10)
     
    H.E.6: The student will demonstrate an understanding of Earth’s freshwater and ocean systems.
    Show details

    District CFA #4

     
    (Week 35, 1 Week)
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

    Hank Green Lab Safety Video

    Review: You must complete the required 1-50 and submit. All work must be completed by___

    How is Earth’s motion related to the origin of the galaxy and its solar system?

    1. What is barycenter? Why does the Sun wobble?
    2. What causes the seasons?
    3. What force and motion cause the circumference of Earth to be larger around the equator than around the poles?
    4. What is fusion?
    5. Where in the universe does fusion occur naturally?
    6. How does fission differ from fusion? (Where does fission occur on Earth?)
    7. What is combustion? How does combustion differ from fusion or fission?
    8. By what three processes does the Sun’s energy warm the Earth and its atmosphere?
    9. What is radiation?
    10. What is conduction?
    11. What is convection?
    12. What is Earth’s magnetic field?
    13. What creates the magnetic field?
    14. How does it protect us from the harmful effects of the Sun’s radiation?
    15. What are the processes that change one type of rock into another type in the rock cycle?
    16. What processes form igneous rocks?
    17. What processes form sedimentary rocks?
    18. What processes form metamorphic rocks?
    19. What is weathering? How is it related to the rock cycle?
    20. What is the difference between chemical weathering and physical weathering?
    21. What are the ways that rocks can be chemically weathered? Physically weathered?
    22. In which type of climate do rocks experience more chemical weathering? Physical weathering?
    23. Which types of rocks are more easily physically weathered?
    24. What type of weathering produces caves and clay?
    25. How does weathering help to make soil?
    26. What is soil?
    27. How do the three particle types of soil (clay, silt, sand) differ?
    28. How can a soil texture triangle be used to determine the texture of the soil in a location?
    29. What is the equation for the discharge of a stream? What are the units?
    30. Define DRAINAGE BASIN
    31. Which coastal landforms are created by deposition of sediments?
    32. What are the 2 types of water pollution?
    33. Give 3 examples of KARST TOPOGRAPHY.
    34. What’s the difference between STALAGMITES and STALACTITES?
    35. How do surface temperatures of bodies of water vary?
    36. Define SUPERNOVA.
    37. What is the Galaxy Formation Theory? What is the Nebular Theory?
    38. Lists the layers of the Moon.
    39. What is the difference between a waxing moon and a waning moon?
    40. What’s the equation for Kepler’s 3rd Law?
    41. Define MASS EXTINCTION.
    42. List the layers of Earth’s atmosphere.
    43. Name the 4 types of clouds we covered.
    44. Draw and label the water cycle.
    45. What are the groundwater zones?
    46. How would 1014.9 mb be recorded on a station model?
    47. Convert 199 mb on a station model to barometric pressure.
    48. Draw the weather model with the following information:
      1. Temp. 93 F
      2. Dew point 75 F
      3. Wind direction: NNW 10 knots
      4. Cloud cover: partly cloudy
      5. Pressure: 1004.1 mb
      6. Pressure trends: rising
      7. Current weather: none
    49. Draw and Label the CARBON CYCLE:

      Class assignment for ___: You must complete the required 15 review question at the end of each class period and submit daily for your final review grade. Due ___

     Explain Earth’s role (position) as a body in space

    Explain Earth’s role (position) as a body in space. 
    How is Earth’s motion related to the origin of the galaxy and its solar system?
    What is Earth’s position in the hierarchy of organization within the universe?
    How do Kepler’s laws describe planetary orbits (esp. Earth’s)?
    What is the relative motion of Earth in the solar system, the solar system in the galaxy, and the galaxy in the universe?
    What motion causes a year?

    What motion causes day and night?
    What is precession?  How does it change the climate?
    What is nutation? How does it change the climate?
    What is barycenter?  Why does the Sun wobble?
    What causes the seasons? 
    When are winter, spring, summer, and fall in each hemisphere? Relate this to Earth’s tilt.
    Why are seasons opposite in the Northern and Southern hemispheres?
    What force and motion cause the circumference of Earth to be larger around the equator than around the poles?
    What is fusion? 
    Where in the universe does fusion occur naturally?
    How does fission differ from fusion?  (Where does fission occur on Earth?)
    What is combustion?  How does combustion differ from fusion or fission?
    What forms of energy are produced by the sun?
    What are electromagnetic waves?
    How are ultraviolet rays filtered or blocked by our atmosphere?
    How are cosmic rays blocked?
    By what three processes does the Sun’s energy warm the Earth and its atmosphere?
    What is radiation?
    What is conduction?
    What is convection?
    Which takes longer to warm or cool – land or water?  EXPLAIN
    How does the differential heating of land and water cause wind?
    How does the differential heating of land and water affect coastal climates?
    What is photosynthesis? 
    How is solar energy transformed into chemical energy through photosynthesis?
    What is Earth’s magnetic field?
    What creates the magnetic field?
    How does it protect us from the harmful effects of the Sun’s radiation?

    Final Review May 2020 to May 30, 2020

     

    Explain Earth’s role (position) as a body in space.

    1. How is Earth’s motion related to the origin of the galaxy and its solar system?
    2. Earth orbits the Sun rotates within the solar system, which rotates in Milky Way Galaxy, which moves in the Universe due to expansion.
    3. What is Earth’s position in the hierarchy of organization within the universe?
    4. Earth à Solar System à Orion Arm of Milky Way Galaxy à Local Group à Virgo Supercluster à Universe
    5. How do Kepler’s laws describe planetary orbits (esp. Earth’s)?2nd Law (Law of Areas): A line that connects a planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal time. (Earth sweeps out a longer path when it is closer to the Sun. Earth moves fastest when it is closest to the Sun.)
    6. 3rd Law (Law of Periods): The square of the orbital period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit. (The closer a planet’s orbit is to the Sun, the short its orbital period or year will be.)
    7. 1st Law (Law of Orbits): All planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun as one focus. (Earth orbit is an ellipse.)
    8. What is the relative motion of Earth in the solar system, the solar system in the galaxy, and the galaxy in the universe?
    9. Earth orbits the Sun rotates within the solar system, which rotates in Milky Way Galaxy, which moves in the Universe due to expansion.
    1. What motion causes a year?
    2. A year is caused by the revolution of the Earth around the Sun.
    3. What motion causes day and night?
    4. Day and night are caused by the rotation of Earth on its axis – spinning towards and away from the Sun.
    1. What is precession? How does it change the climate?
    2. Precession is the wobble in Earth’s rotational axis. Climate changes due to the changing position of the hemispheres. Eventually, the Northern and Southern hemispheres will change positions.
    3. What is nutation? How does it change the climate?
    4. Nutation is the change in the angle of tilt of Earth’s axis. If the angle of the tilt decreases, the temperature difference between seasons would lessen. If the angle of the tilt increases, the temperature difference between seasons would greaten.
    5. What is barycenter? Why does the Sun wobble?
    6. The barycenter is the center of mass between a planet and the Sun. The sun wobbles around in its orbit because the planets are pulling on it as they orbit.
    7. What causes the seasons?
    8. The tilt and the ecliptic plane of the Earth cause the seasons.
    1. When are winter, spring, summer, and fall in each hemisphere? Relate this to Earth’s tilt.            Summer - Tilted toward the Sun            Winter – Tilted away from the SunSouthern Hemisphere:            Fall (Their Spring) – Facing toward the Sun            Spring (Their Fall) – Facing away from the Sun
    2.             Winter (Their Summer) – Tilted toward the Sun
    3.             Summer (Their Winter) – Tilted away from the Sun
    4.             Spring – Facing toward the Sun
    5.             Fall – Facing away from the Sun
    6. Northern Hemisphere:
    7. Why are seasons opposite in the Northern and Southern hemispheres?
    8. The seasons in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are opposite each other because when one hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun, the other is tilted away from it.
    1. What force and motion causes the circumference of Earth to be larger around the equator than around the poles?
    2. Centrifugal force and Earth’s rotation causes the circumference of Earth to be larger around the equator than around the poles.
    3. What is fusion?
    4. Fusion is the fusing of smaller, lighter hydrogen atoms to form a larger, heavier helium atom (which releases energy).
    1. Where in the universe does fusion occur naturally?
    2.   Fusion occurs in the stars (our Sun) naturally.
    3. How does fission differ from fusion? (Where does fission occur on Earth?)
    4. Fission is the splitting of bigger, heavy atoms into smaller, lighter atoms whereas fusion is the joining of smaller, lighter atoms into bigger, heavy atoms. Fission occurs in nuclear power plants and submarines.
    5. What is combustion? How does combustion differ from fusion or fission?
    6. Combustion is the burning of a fuel in presence of oxygen to produce energy in the form of heat and light. This differs from fusion or fission in that atoms are not split or fused; they are rearranged.
    1. What forms of energy are produced by the sun?
    2. The Sun produces electromagnetic radiation across the spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared energy (heat), visible light ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, and gamma rays).
    1. What are electromagnetic waves?
    2. Electromagnetic waves are waves that are formed from electric and magnetic disturbances that travel through space.
    3. How are ultraviolet rays filtered or blocked by our atmosphere?
    4. Ultraviolet rays are filtered/blocked by our atmosphere by the ozone layer (in the stratosphere).
    5. How are cosmic rays blocked?
    6. Cosmic rays are blocked by Earth’s magnetic field.
    1. By what three processes does the Sun’s energy warm the Earth and its atmosphere?
    2. The three processes are radiation, conduction, and convection.
    1. What is radiation?
    2. Radiation is the transfer of energy through space by electromagnetic waves (visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and others.
    3. What is conduction?
    4. Conduction is the transfer of energy that occurs when molecules collide. This is how air molecules above Earth’s surfaces are warmed.
    5. What is convection?
    6. Convection is the transfer of energy by the flow of a heated substance. Warm air rises and cold air sinks.
    1. Which takes longer to warm or cool – land or water?
    2. Water takes longer to warm and cool.
    1. How does the differential heating of land and water cause wind?
    2. Differential heating of land and water causes wind due to pressure differences between land and water.
    3. How does the differential heating of land and water affect coastal climates?
    4. It moderates the climate. In winter, the ocean acts like a giant heater and in the summer, the ocean acts like a giant air conditioner.
    1. What is photosynthesis?
    2. Photosynthesis is the process where solar energy is converted into chemical energy (food).
    1. How is solar energy transformed into chemical energy through photosynthesis?
    2. Carbon dioxide mixes with water to produce oxygen and sugar
    1. What is Earth’s magnetic field?
    1. What creates the magnetic field?
    2. Earth’s magnetic field is created by Earth’s magnetic core.
    3. How does it protect us from the harmful effects of the Sun’s radiation?
    4. Earth’s magnetic field protects us from the solar wind by deflecting these particles and trapping them in two huge rings (Van Allen belts).
    • What is an - Ellipsoid celestial body that is flattened at the poles and bulging at the equator… do not confuse with an elliptical orbit

     

     

    Explain how processes and forces affect the lithosphere.  

    Understand how human influences impact the lithosphere.

     

    1. What are the processes that change one type of rock into another type in the rock cycle?
    2. The process that change one type of rock into another type in the rock cycle are melting, cooling, solidification, deposition, burial, lithification (compaction and cementation), heat, and pressure.
    1. What processes form igneous rocks?
    2. The processes that form igneous rocks are melting, cooling, and solidification.
    3. What processes form sedimentary rocks?
    4. The processes that form sedimentary rocks are deposition, burial, and lithification (compaction and cementation).
    5. What processes form metamorphic rocks?
    6. The processes that form metamorphic rocks are heat and pressure – without melting.
    1. What is weathering? How is it related to the rock cycle?
    2. Weathering is the process by which big pieces of rocks are broken down into smaller pieces. Weathering is the process that changes igneous rocks into sedimentary rocks.
    1. What is the difference between chemical weathering and physical weathering?
    2. Physical weathering is the process where rocks and minerals break down into smaller pieces while chemical weathering is the process by which rocks/minerals undergo changes in composition as result of chemical reactions.
    3. What are ways that rocks can be chemically weathered? Physically weathered?
    4. Chemically Weathered:
    • Water: dissolves minerals and rocks
    • Oxygen: combines with iron in rocks and minerals
    • Carbon Dioxide: combines with water in the atmosphere or soil-forming weak carbonic acid
    • Acid Precipitation: precipitation mixed with gases in the atmosphere that turns it into acid rain    

     

    Physical Weathering

    • Frost Wedging: water in cracks expands as it freezes, wedging the rock apart and splitting it
    • Exfoliation: overlaying rocks removed by erosion, pressure reduced, outer layers crack and are stripped away

     

    1. In which type of climate do rocks experience more chemical weathering? Physical weathering?
    2. Chemical weathering happens more rapidly in climates that are warm and humid (tropical places), such as Central America and South East Asia. Physical weathering happens more rapidly in climates that can get cold.
    3. Which types of rocks are more easily physically weathered?
    4. Sedimentary rocks are more easily weathered than harder igneous and metamorphic rocks.
    5. What type of weathering produces caves and clay?
    6. Chemical weathering, in the form of carbon dioxide, causes weathering in clay and caves.
    7. How does weathering help to make soil?
    8. The weathering of rocks into smaller sediments over time creates soil.
    1. What is soil?
    2. The weathering of rocks into smaller sediments
    1. How do the three particle types of soil (clay, silt, sand) differ?
    2. Particles of soil are classified by size – clay being the smallest and sand being the largest.
    3. How can a soil texture triangle be used to determine the texture of soil in a location?
    4. A soil texture triangle uses the relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay to determine its texture, which determines its capacity to absorb and retain water and support plant growth.
    1. What is the difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources?
    2. A renewable resource is a resource that can be used indefinitely while a nonrenewable resource exist in a fixed amount and can only be replaced by processes that take thousands of years.
    3. What is erosion?
    4. Erosion is the process that transports Earth’s materials from one place to another.
    1. How does water cause erosion?
    2. Water has more power to move large objects. Rocks exposed to their surrounding environments are slowly weathered away then rivers carry those sediments away.
    3. How does wind cause erosion?
    4. Wind causes erosion by transporting sediment from one area to another.
    5. How do glaciers cause erosion?
    6. Glaciers change Earth’s surface by scraping and gouging out large sections of land, carry huge rocks and pile debris over great distances, and by polishing rocks.
    7. What are the types of mass movements of Earth materials due to the force of gravity? How do the following types of mass movements change Earth’s surface – landslides, slumps, avalanche, rock slide (fall), creep?
    8. Mass movements are the downslope movement of loose sediments or weathered rock due to gravity. The types are:
    • Landslide: thin block of loose Earth that slides on bedrock than can be triggered by earthquakes and excess rain
    • Slump: a mass of Earth material that rotates and slides along a curved surface that causes crescent-shaped scars
    • Avalanche: a landslide in snowy mountainous areas that changes the Earth’s surface by moving large amounts of Earth down
    • Rock Falls: falling rocks that cause roadblocks and destruction to property
    • Creep: the slow, steady, downhill flow of loose, weather material that changes the landscape by causing everything on it to tilt

     

    1. What is the effect of human activity on shorelines? What are artificial stabilization efforts used to prevent shore erosion? (What is a jetty, groin, seawall, breakwater?)
    2. Human activity impacts the shoreline by increasing erosion along a beach shore.
    • Jetty: a concrete wall that keeps harbor entrances clear of sand but causes erosion of beaches down shore
    • Groin: traps beach sand which increases erosion down shore
    • Seawall: prevents the destruction of beachfront property by reflecting waves to beach which increases erosion
    • Breakwater: protects small boats but causes the shore side to fill with sand

     

    1. What is the theory of plate tectonics? What tectonic features do scientists look at on a world map that indicates that Earth’s lithosphere is broken into giant plates?
    2. The theory of plate tectonics states the Earth’s rigid crust and upper mantle (lithosphere) is broken into large plates. Scientists look for cracks in the Earth’s crust.
    3. How are the plates moving at each of the following plate boundaries - divergent, convergent, transform?
    • Divergent: plates separate (divide)
    • Convergent: plates are moving toward each other (converge)
    • Transform: slide horizontally past each other

     

    1. How do the forces of ridge push and slab pull move the tectonic plates?
    • Ridge push: force created by weight of uplifted ridge, which pushes an ocean plate towards a trench
    • Slab pull: weight of subducting plate pulls trailing plate into subduction zone

     

    1. What geologic events/landforms occur at of the following plate boundaries – divergent, convergent (ocean/ocean), convergent (ocean/continental), convergent (continental/ continental), transform? Answer the following questions. Studying diagrams would be immensely helpful!!
      1. At which boundary is seafloor spreading occurring?
      2. Divergent boundary
      3. Which of the boundaries form fissure volcanoes, a rift valley, or a midocean ridge?
      4. Divergent boundary
      5. Which of the boundaries form volcanic islands?
      6. Convergent boundary (ocean/ocean)
      7. Which of the boundaries form a volcanic mountain range near a coastline?
      8. An ocean/continental convergent boundary
      9. At which boundary is an ocean trench present?
      10. Subduction
      11. What forms an ocean trench?
      12. Convergent boundary
      13. What is a subduction zone? What often forms above a subduction zone?
      14. A subduction zone is an area where one plate goes under another. A volcanic island arc often forms.
      15. Where is the ring of fire?
      16. The ring of fire is the locations of volcanoes that occur at plate boundaries.
    1. What is a volcano?
    2. A volcano is a mountain or opening in Earth’s crust from which lava eruopts
    1. What is the difference between magma and lava?
    2. Magma is a mixture of molten rock, suspended mineral grains, and dissolved gases beneath Earth’s surface while lava is molten rock that has reached Earth’s surface
    • What causes an earthquake?
      1. What is stress? What do - compression, tension, shear - result in?

     

    1. An earthquake is a natural vibration of the ground caused by movement along gigantic fractures in Earth’s crust
    • A stress is the force per unit area acting on a material.
    • Compression decreases the volume of a material.
    • Tension pulls a material apart.
    • Shear causes a material to twist.

     

      1. What is a fault?
      2. A fault is a fracture along with movement occurs.
      3. What type of stress and rock movement are found at each of the 3 types of faults - reverse, normal, strike-slip?
    • Reverse Fault: forms at convergent boundaries and occurs due to compression; Block above fault moves up and over
    • Normal Fault: forms at divergent boundaries and occurs due to tension; Block above fault moves down
    • Strike-slip Fault: forms at transform boundaries and occurs to shearing; Blocks slide past each other
      1. What are seismic waves?
      2. How do the following types of seismic waves - primary, secondary, surface - move the rocks through which they travel? Which are fastest? Which do the most damage?
      3. Seismic waves are the vibrations of the ground during an earthquake
    • Primary (P) waves: squeeze (push) and pull rocks in the same direction as the wave; Fastest
    • Secondary (S) waves: rocks move at right angles to the direction of the wave
    • Surface waves: wave that moves in 2 directions (up/down and side/side); Slowest; Most damaging
    • What does a Travel-Time Graph show?

     A travel-time graph shows the average time of P and S waves that is used to calculate the distance to the epicenter

    • What is the focus of an EQ? What is the epicenter? How can an EQ’s epicenter be located?

     The focus of an earthquake is where the rocks break at least several miles beneath Earth’s surface. The epicenter is the location on Earth’s surface just above the focus. The epicenter can be located by using a travel-time curve.

    1. Which of our states have the highest seismic risk? What is North Carolina’s seismic risk? Is it the same across the state?North Carolina: Moderate seismic risk in Piedmont and mountains; Low seismic rick in coastal plains
    2. Highest seismic risk: California, Alaska, Hawaii, Utah, Nevada
    3. Where on Earth do most EQs occur?
    4. Most earthquakes happen at tectonic plate boundaries (Ring of Fire, Mediterranean, mid-ocean ridge)
    5. What precautions can be taken to prevent the loss of human life and destruction to property due to EQs? 
    6. Better buildings,

    Explain the structure and processes within the hydrosphere.  

    Evaluate how humans use water.

     

    1. When sea ice melts, the water gets cold and salty and sinks - why?
      1. Where does cold water from the poles go?
      2.  
      3. What does deep ocean water do as it reaches the equator and warms?
      4.  
    2.  
    3. How do each of these processes of the water cycle work? evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and infiltration.
    • Evaporation: moisture from the water changes into gas
    • Transpiration: moisture from the land changes into gas
    • Condensation: process where liquid changes into a solid
    • Precipitation: water that falls back to earth
    • Infiltration: the process where water seeps into the ground

     

    1. What is the connection between surface water and groundwater? How does each turn into the other?
    2. The water cycle
    3. What are the following parts of a river? – river, tributaries, watershed, divide, floodplain, meander, headwaters, and mouth? Tributaries: the smaller streams that feed into a riverDivide: a high land area that separates one watershed from anotherMeander: a bend or curve in a stream channelMouth: the end of a stream that is usually located at the ocean or another body of water
    4. Headwaters: the beginning of a stream
    5. Floodplain: a broad, flat, fertile area next to a stream that floods periodically
    6. Watershed: all of the land area whose water drains into s stream system
    7. River: a large stream
    8. What causes floods? How do groundwater levels affect flooding?
    9. Floods occur when water overflows a stream’s bank. It is more likely to flood when groundwater levels are high since the aquifer is already full.
    10. What is an estuary? Where does the fresh and salt water come from? How would an upstream drought affect the water in an estuary?
    11.  
    12. Where is most of Earth’s water? Where is most of Earth’s fresh water?
    13. Most of Earth’s water is found in the oceans (97%). Most of Earth’s fresh water is found in the polar ice caps and glaciers (90%).
    14. How are the following terms describing groundwater defined – porosity, aquifer, aquiclude, zone of saturation, water table?
    • Porosity: the percentage of pore space in a material
    • Aquifer: an underground storage area for water
    • Aquiclude: an impermeable layer above or below an aquifer
    • Zone of Saturation: the depth below surface where groundwater completely fills all the pores
    • Water Table: the upper boundary of the zone of saturation

     

    1. What is a well?
    2. A well is a hole dug to reach groundwater
    3. The following are consequences of the overuse of groundwater
      1. What is drawdown?
      2. Drawdown is the difference between the original water table level and that of a pumped well.
      3. What is aquifer depletion?
      4.  
      5. What is subsistence?
      6. Subsidence is when the ground near an overused well sinks
      7. What causes salt-water intrusion into wells in coastal areas?
      8. Salt water from the ocean enters an aquifer and makes the water undrinkable.
    4. What are some threats to our groundwater supplies?
      1. What substance is drawn up when wells are over pumped?
      2.  
      3. Can most chemical contaminants be easily removed from groundwater?
      4.  
      5. How can our groundwater be protected and restored?
      6.  
    5.  

    Understand the structure of and processes within our atmosphere.  

     

    1. What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere? By what percent? The second most? By what percent?
    2. The most abundant gas in the atmosphere is nitrogen (78%) followed by oxygen (21%).
    3. What are the functions/importances of the following substances in the atmosphere… oxygen, carbon dioxide, ozone, water vapor, water, ice, dust and salt
    • Gas: gas organisms need to break down food for energy
    • Carbon Dioxide: gas that plays a minor role in absorbing heat
    • Ozone: gas that absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun
    • Water Vapor: gas that plays a major role in absorbing heat
    • Water: liquid that is the source of rain
    • Ice: solid that makes up snow, sleet, and hail
    • Dust and Salt: solids that provide a solid surface for water vapor to condense
    1. What are the characteristics and composition of the 5 layers of the atmosphere – troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere? What is found in each?
    • Troposphere: lowest layer in the atmosphere where weather, life forms and jets are located
    • Stratosphere: layer that contains the ozone layer
    • Mesosphere: layer that contains meteors that burn up
    • Thermosphere: layer that contains the ionosphere and the auroras
    • Exosphere: layer that contains satellites
      1. Where is the ozone layer? Why is it so important to life on Earth?
      2. The ozone layer is found in the stratosphere which absorbs the ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
      3. How does the temperature, pressure, & density vary as one moves up the troposphere?
      4. The troposphere increases in temperature, pressure and density as it moves up in the troposphere.
      5. What characteristic is used to identify the layers of the atmosphere?
      6. Heat is the characteristic used to identify the layers of the atmosphere.
      7. Why is the thermosphere said to be the hottest layer when it feels so cold up there?
      8. The thermosphere is the hottest layer of the atmosphere but it feels so cold because even though molecules are moving very fas, they are so far apart that there is no heat transfer.
    1. How much of the sun’s energy does Earth’s surface absorb? What happens to the rest of it?
    2. 65% of the sun’s energy is absorbed by Earth’s surface. The rest (35%) is reflected back into space.
    3. If warm air and cold air collide, which will rise?
      1. Why does warm air rise?
      2. Warm air rises because it is less dense.
      3. Why does cold air sink?
      4. Cold air sinks because it is more dense.
    4. Warm air rises and cold air sinks.
    5. What creates wind?
    6. The air moving from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure.
    7. What is the difference between weather and climate?
    8. Weather is the current state of the atmosphere while climate is the average weather for a specific location for a long period of time.
    9. What are the location and characteristics of the 5 major air masses that affect the weather of the USA? continental tropical, maritime tropical, continental polar, continental tropical, Arctic
    • Continental Tropical (cT): forms over tropical lands which bring warm dry air
    • Maritime Tropical (mT): forms over tropical waters which bring warm humid air
    • Continental Polar (cP): forms over colder lands which brings cool dry air
    • Maritime Polar (mP): forms over colder waters which brings cool humid air
    • Arctic (A): forms over Arctic land which brings very cold dry air
    1. What causes the four types of fronts - cold, warm, stationary, occluded? Identify symbols for each & describe the weather & clouds each causes. What happens to temperature of an area after each passes?
    • Cold front (blue triangles): cold, dense air displaces warm air and forces it up a steep front which brings clouds, showers, and thunderstorms
    • Warm front (red semicircles): advancing warm air displaces cold air and moves up slowly and causes extensive cloudiness and precipitation
    • Stationary front (blue triangles alternate with red semicircles): two air masses meet and neither advances and causes some clouds and precipitation
    • Occluded front (purple alternating semicircles/triangles): a cold air mass moves so rapidly that it overtakes a warm front and wedges the air up and causes precipitation on both sides of the front
    1. Be able to read a weather map! What are isobars? Isotherms? What type of wind is represented by isobars that are close together? (strong or weak?) 
    2. Isobars connect points of equal pressure while isotherms connect points of equal temperature. Isobars that are closer together indicate stronger winds.
    3. Describe the 2 types of pressure systems – high and low. Recognize the symbol for each. What kind of weather do they cause?Low Pressure System: brings clouds and precipitation
    4. High Pressure System: brings fair weather
    5. Where do the majority of thunderstorms occur in the USA?
      1. Where is the safest place to be during a thunderstorm?
      2. The safest place to be during a thunderstorm is a room near no windows.
    6. The majority of thunderstorms occur in Florida.
    7. What is a tornado?
      1. Where is the safest place to be in during a tornado?
      2. The safest place during a tornado is a basement or an interior room/fall on the lowest floor.
    8. A tornado is a wave cyclone that forms on land from rotating winds.
    9. What is a tropical cyclone? (a hurricane?)
      1. Where do cyclones derive their energy? What causes them to lose strength?
      2. Tropical cyclones derive energy from warm, tropical oceans and lose strength as they move onto land.
    10. A hurricane is a large, rotating, low pressure storm.
    11. Hurricane Hazards…
      1. Where are the strongest winds in a hurricane?
      2. The strongest winds in a hurricane are in the eye wall.
      3. What is a storm surge? What kills 9 out of 10 people who die in hurricanes?
      4. A storm surge is when hurricane force winds drive a mound of ocean water towards coastal areas. Storm surges kill 9 out of 10 people in a hurricane.
      5. What is the number 1 safety tip for surviving a hurricane?  
      6. Evacuate!

    Analyze patterns of global climate change over time.

    Explain how the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere individually and collectively affect the biosphere over time.

     

    1. What are 3 factors that describe the climate of a location?
    2. The factors that describe the climate of a location are temperature, wind, and precipitation.
    3. Where is each of the following climate zones located - tropics, temperate, polar?
    4. In general, what temperatures would you experience in each zone?
        1. Polar (-23 to -7°C); Temperate (-7 to 24°C); Tropical (24 to 26°C)
    5. Why does it get colder as one moves toward the poles?
      1. Cold air sinks
    6. The polar region is located at the poles. The tropical region is located the equator.
    7. What is the rain shadow effect? What does it create on the leeward side of a high mountain range?
    8. The rain shadow effect is when the windward side gets rain but the leeward side gets no rain.
    9. How do ocean currents affect climate?
      1. Which current affects our climate? California’s? On which coast would you find cold currents? Warm currents?
      2. East coasts have warm currents due to the gulf stream while the west coasts have cold currents due to the Bering Sea.
    10. How do coastal climates differ from continental (inland) climates? Why?
    11. Coastal climates are more temperate than continental climates due to differential heating.
    12. What does the Koeppen classification system classify?
    13. It classifies climate zones.
    14. Are coastal areas cooler or warmer than inland areas in the winter? (Think about the difference in temperature between Clemmons and Wilmington.)
    15. Coastal communities are cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter.
    16. What is a heat island? Give an example.
    17. A heat island is a localized place where climate is warmer than the area around it (lots of building and little vegetation).
    18. What is an ice age? How does an ice age affect sea level?
    19. An ice age is a period of extensive glacial coverage. The sea level decreases.
    20. What is El Niño?  
      1. Which current is affected? How does pressure change in the Pacific Ocean?
      2. South American current
      3. Why is the cold upwelling along the Peruvian Coast so important?
      4.  
    21. El Nino is when a warm current develops off the Western coast of South America and can cause short-term, worldwide climatic changes.
    22. How do the absence (or presence) of sunspots affect Earth’s climate? Why was the Maunder Minimum (Little Ice Age) so cold?
    23. The absence of sunspots decreases Earth’s temperatures. The Maunder Minimum was so cold due to absence of sunspots.
    24. How does a more elliptical orbit affect Earth’s climate?
    25. The more elliptical the orbit, the closer the Earth passes and temperatures rise.
    26. How do large volcanic eruptions affect Earth’s climate?
    27. Large volcanic eruptions tend to cool the Earth because the volcanic ash and dust block solar radiation.
    28. How does extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere affect Earth’s climate? (Answer this question with the standard statement about CO2 being a toxic, greenhouse gas that causes global warming - for your Exam!)
      1. How do changes in global temperatures affect agriculture?
      2. Crops would change due to climate change.
      3. How do changes in global temperatures affect species diversity (esp. amphibians)?
      4. Specific diversity will alter the numbers of species
      5. How do changes in global temperatures affect ecosystem balance?
      6.  
      7. How do changes in global temperatures affect weather events?
      8. More hurricanes will occur since the temperature of the ocean water will increase.
      9. How do changes in global temperatures affect sea level? (esp. during warming) Related to this…
        1. How do glaciers affect sea level?
        2. As glaciers melt, the sea level increases.
      10. How are the shorelines and barrier islands of NC affected by sea level rise?
      11. Barrier islands and shorelines will decrease or disappear as sea level rises.
    29. What is the biosphere?
    30. The biosphere is all the life on Earth.
    31. What is biodiversity?
      1. What is genetic biodiversity? Why is it important? What is a species that has lost genetic biodiversity?
      2. Genetic diversity is the difference in genetic makeup within a species. Insects has lost genetic biodiversity.
      3. Which biome has the most biodiversity? Why?
      4. The biome with the most biodiversity is rainforest because it is warm and has lots of water available for living things.
      5. Which biome has the least biodiversity? Why?
      6. The biomes with the least biodiversity are the tundra because it is very cold and there is very little liquid water available followed by the desert because it has the least water available.
    32. Biodiversity is the number and variety of species on Earth.
    33. What are 5 things that can reduce biodiversity?
      1. Specifically, what is an invasive species? How does it impact biodiversity? What is an example of an invasive species here in NC?
      2. An invasive species is one that is not native to an area. It reduces biodiversity because it has no natural enemies and native species have no defences.
      3. What is overharvesting?
      4. Overharvesting is the excessive fishing and harvesting of plants which reduces biodiversity by reducing population of harvested species.
      5. What is habitat alteration?
      6. Habitat alteration changes of a natural habitat .
    34. Habitat alteration, Urbanization, Invasive species, Pollution, Overharvesting
    35. What impact does the loss of biodiversity have on our society – local and global?
    36. The loss of biodiversity affects our survival needs on a global scale (food, water, air, shelter, energy).
    37. How can we prevent the loss of biodiversity? 
    38. To prevent the loss of biodiversity, death and wars must be eliminated.

    Evaluate human behaviors in terms of how likely they are to ensure the ability to live sustainably on Earth.

          1. What methods do we use to obtain… peat & wood, natural gas & petroleum (oil), uranium & coal?
    • Peat and wood: harvesting (collecting from nature)
    • Natural gas and Petroleum (oil): drilling and fracking (natural gas)
    • Uranium: mining
    • Coal: mining (surface pit or underground)
          1. What are the consequences of the following activities on the lithosphere? Mining? Harvesting? Drilling?
    • Mining: loss of habitat and pollution
    • Harvesting: loss of trees if not replanted
    • Drilling: nonrenewable
          1. What are the benefits, costs, and environmental impact of the following types of alternative energy – solar, wind, biofuels, nuclear fusion, fuel cells, wave power, and geothermal?

     

    Benefits

    Costs

    Env. Impact

    Solar

    Clean and quiet

    Expensive

    Negligible

    Wind

    Free and clean

    Expensive

    Noisy, unsightly, can kill migrating birts

    Biofuels

    Renewable

     

    Disrupts the recycling of nutrients back into the ecosystem and generates pollution

    Nuclear Fusion

    Clean

     

    None

    Fuel Cells

    No pollution

    Expensive

    Hydrogen must be in proper form.

    Wave Power

    Free

    Expensive

    Disturb coastal habitats

    Geothermal

    Free

    Expensive

    Habitat disturbance and the disposal of large quantities of noxious gases and very salty water

     

          1. Which of the energy sources listed above would work best in the mountains, piedmont, and coastal plains of NC? Why?
          2. Solar, Wind, Wave Power
          3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of traditional aquaculture? Sustainable aquaculture?
          4.  
          5. What is carrying capacity?
          6. The carrying capacity is the number of organisms that any given environment can support.
          7. What is the difference between dependent & independent limiting factors? What are examples of each?
    • Density-Independent Limiting Factors: environmental factors that affect population growth regardless of population size (Ex: storms, changes in temperature, droughts, floods, pollution)
    • Density-Dependent Limiting Factors: environmental factors that affect population growth as the population’s size increases (Ex: disease, parasite, lack of food)
          1. What is the impact of a growing population on North Carolina’s natural resources?
          2. More natural resources are used since cars, houses, and roads increase. Land for agriculture, fresh water supplies, and clean air are also strained.
          3. What is an ecological footprint? What are levels of ecological footprints?
          4.  
          5. What contributes to your ecological footprint? Is it big or small? How can you make it smaller?12. How does El Nino form?14. What is reclamation?16. Explain how one rock type and turn into another (rock cycle)   18. Classify sedimentary rocks as clastic, chemical or bioclastic20. Explain the formation of soil22. Describe the layers of the Earth and how we know about each layer25. Describe the theory which explains the movement of plates. What layer of the Earth are these located?27.What evidence did Wegner have for his Continental Drift theory?29. What causes tsunamis? P wave                                    Surface waves-32. Recognize the 3 types of faults and the stress involved with eachreverse 
          6. strike-slip
          7. normal
          8. 31. What does the Mercalli scale measure?
          9. S wave
          10. 30. Describe earthquake waves:
          11. 28. Explain why Wegner’s continental drift theory was rejected.
          12. 26. What is Pangaea?
          13. 24. How is ocean crust different from continental crust? Which rock makes up the each type of crust?
          14. 21. Define watershed
          15. 19. What are some examples of a composite volcano?
          16. 17. Compare intrusive and extrusive rock
          17. Metamorphic → igneous                                                        metamorphic→ sedimentary
          18. Sedimentary → metamorphic                                    sedimentary→ igneous
          19. Igneous               sedimentary                                      igneous → metamorphic
          20. 15. Determine the differences between a rock and a mineral
          21. 13. What affects does El Nino have?
          22. 11. Explain how the Coriolis Effect influences ocean currents.

     

     

    Thursday Review & Notes

    Electromagnetic (EM) Spectrum Notes

    Electromagnetic spectrum is….

    • All the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.
    • Electromagnetic wave is a wave that can travel through a vacuum, like space, and is made up of both electric and magnetic fields.
    • Electromagnetic radiation is created in stars, like our sun, and travels through space.

     

    EM’s Identify Crisis

    • Scientific studies of electromagnetic waves conclude that in some situations, electromagnetic waves act like a particle, and sometimes they act like a transverse wave.

     

    How Electromagnetic (EM) waves move

    • EM radiation travels in waves.
    • Radiation - the transfer of energy as EM waves
    • EM radiation travels in a straight line through a vacuum, like space, but will slow down and travel at different speeds when it enters a medium, like air, water, or dirt.
    • EM radiation travels as a transverse wave.

     

    Speed of EM Waves

    • EM waves travel very quickly, at the speed of light – 300,000 km/s.
    • EM waves reach from the sun to Earth in about 8 minutes.
    • All waves in the EM spectrum travel at this speed when in a vacuum.

     

    The Colors of Visible Light

    • Different light waves have different wavelengths.
    • Our eyes interpret different wavelengths as different colors.
    • The longest wavelength is red.
    • The shortest wavelength is violet.
    • White light - what is seen when all the wavelengths get mixed in equal proportions.
    • A prism – a tool used to separate the wavelengths of visible light.

     

    Your Eyes…

    • Only recognize or see 3 colors – red, green, and blue. These are called the primary colors of light.
    • All other colors we see are just a mixture of these three – this is different than what you are used to when mixing paints.

    Visible Light Spectrum

    • As wavelength decreases frequency increases.
    • Visible light is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum we can see and it is the smallest part of the entire spectrum.
    • ROY G. BIV - an acronym to help you remember the colors in the visible light spectrum.
    • Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet - Remember, some people aren’t including indigo in the visible light spectrum any more.

     

    The Electromagnetic Spectrum

    • Visible light is just one type of radiant energy. There is a lot of energy that travels in waves that we can’t see.
    • The Electromagnetic Spectrum – the range of frequencies possessed by electromagnetic waves.
    • Mnemonic to help you remember the order of the EM waves from longest wavelength to shortest wavelength. Rabid Monkeys In Velvet Underpants eXcrete Goo - or make up your own!

      EM Uses

    • Radio – TV, radio stations, cordless phone signals, airplane communications
    • Microwaves – cell phones, cook food, Doppler Radar (weather), police radar
    • Infrared – TV remote control, heat treatments for illness, night vision goggles to see body heat
    • Visible Light – fiber optics, mirrors & lenses, flashlights, light bulbs, LED bulbs, lasers for laser pointers for surgery and cutting things
    • Ultraviolet – suntan, kill bacteria & viruses, detect forgery, black light to find blood and saliva
    • X-ray – see broken bones, look for hidden objects at airports
    • Gamma rays – kill cancer, sterilize, smoke detectors, check for leaks in the welds of pipes, determine the width of metal sheets, create energy in nuclear fission power plants

     Too Much EM?

    • The sun is the primary source of EM radiation here on Earth.
    • Our atmosphere acts as a shield to most of the dangerous EM waves
    • Remember:
    • High frequency = more energy
      • More energy = more dangerous

     

    Review and Pre-Exam Assessment      11/2020   This is our in class activity                

    1. What is the relationship between frequency and wavelength? (Direct or Inverse)
    2. What is the relationship between frequency and energy? (Direct or Inverse)

    Define, chart or illustrate each of the following words: CREST, VISIBLE LIGHT, LONGITUDINAL, RADIO    GAMMA, TROUGH, FREQUENCY, AMPLITUDE, ULTRAVIOLET, X-RAY, WAVELENGTH, TRANSVERSE, MECHANICAL, INFRARED

    Fill in the blank

    1. The shorter the wavelength between waves, the higher its ___________________.              
    2.  _______________ waves NEED molecules in order to transfer the energy.                                
    3. The _______________ is the bottom part of a transverse wave.                                                          
    4.  _______ is the distance between one point of a wave to the same point in the next wave.  
    5.  __________________ waves have the highest frequency and carry the most energy.            
    6.  ___ waves are a type of energy that can penetrate materials and get a picture of what is located inside. These are used by doctors and security at airports.                                                  
    7.  The motion of a wave that disturbs the medium at right angles (up & down) is called a _wave.                                                                                                                                                          
    8. The ___________ is the top of a transverse wave.                                                                                    
    9. __________________ waves are the ONLY energy frequencies humans can see.                  
    10. The _________________ of a transverse wave determines amount of energy at one time.
    11.  ______________ waves (heat) have a wavelength just larger than the color red.                    
    12.  _________ waves (cause skin burn) have a wavelength just shorter than the color violet.
    13.  The wave that has the longest wavelength and lowest frequency is _____________ waves.
    14.  ______________ waves occur when the motion of the medium being disturbed is parallel to the direction of the wave (back and forth motion).                                                                          
    15.  __ waves are used to penetrate solids and are used in doctor’s offices and as airports.                
    16.  _____ is the distance between one point of a wave to the same point in the next wave.                      
    17.  ____________________ is the number of waves per unit of time.                                                   
    18.  ____ waves occur when the motion of the medium is parallel to the direction of the wave.
    19.  ____________________ waves have a color spectrum known as ROYGBIV.                                   
    20. ____________________ waves disturb matter.                                                                                        
    21. The ________________ is the top of a wave.                                                                                            
    22. The ________________ is the bottom of a wave.                                                                                    
    23. ______ is the maximum distance that matter is displaced from the resting position.              
    24.  ___________________ waves are produced by stars and galaxies.                                              
    25. ___ waves occur when the motion of the medium is at right angles (perpendicular) to the direction of the wave.
    26. ___________________ waves are often used in heat lamps.                                                              
    27. ___________________ waves are utilized by insects to locate nectar.                                                       
    28.  ___________________ waves are transverse waves that disturb electromagnetic fields.      
    29.  ____________ waves have the shortest wavelength and the highest frequency.

    Directions: Insert an arrow (                                 ) in each blank space to show if it decreases or increases in comparison to the others.

    ________Wavelength=_______Frequency=______Energy

    Directions: Fill in if these items are indirectly or directly proportional.

    Wavelength +Frequency =________________Proportional

    Wavelength + Energy=   _________________Proportional

    Energy + Frequency=____________________Proportional


     

     

     

     

    1. EQ: 11/2020

    1.Compare and contrast radio waves, visible light and gamma rays in terms of frequency, wavelength and energy.

    2.List the 7 types of EM waves from highest frequency to lowest frequency.

    3.Even though the 7 types of EM radiation have very different types of energy, which of the following do they have in common? a. Wavelength  b. Frequency  c. Speed  d. Amplitude

    4.What are the two types of waves? Draw a diagram of each wave and label the parts to the waves.

    5.Define Visible Spectrum:

    6. Give a use for each of the following: Radio waves, Micro waves, Infra Red, Ultraviolet, X-Rays, Gamma

     

    Home work due ___

    Answer the following questions

    1. Explain why we can see light.   2. Name 3 sources of light   3. Light is energy made by ___
    2. Light, like sound waves, (true or false) needs matter to travel through. Explain your answer
    3. Beside visible light, name 4 other types of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum.
    4. The longer the wavelength, the less energy the EM carries. (T/F) Explain
    5. What kind of rays has the highest amount of energy in the EM spectrum? Explain                  
    6. Why does an apple look red to us?
    7. How long does it take for light from the sun to reach Earth?
    8. What is refraction?
    9. What causes refraction?,
    10. Explain in your own words what the electromagnetic spectrum is.
    11. What are the colors of visible light? How can you see them?

     

     Questions and Answers for _____

    Waves, transverse, longitudinal, compressional, electromagnetic, mechanical

    Question

    Answer

    What does opaque mean?

    material that doesn't let light go through.

    Give two examples of a an opaque material.

    Black plastic, steel, wood

    How do we see color?

    We se light that is reflected off an object. The other colors are absorbed.

    What is frequency?

    number of wavelengths that pass a given point in 1 sec.

    What is the unit for frequency?

    Hertz

    Define pitch.

    How high or low a sound is.

    What is an electromagnetic wave?

    Waves that can travel through matter or space.

    List the electromagnetic waves in order starting with radio.

    radio - infrared - visible light - ultraviolet light - x-rays - gamma rays

    What is loudness?

    Human perception of how much energy a sound wave carries.

    Define refraction

    Bending of a wave as it moves from one medium into another.

    What is rarefaction?

    In a compressional wave = the area where molecules are further apart.

    How do you find the wavelength of a transverse wave?

    Measure the distance from crest to crest or trough to trough.

    How do you find the wavelength of a compressional/longitudinal wave?

    Measure the distance from the middle of one compression to the middle of the next compression.

    Describe a concave mirror.

    The surface is curved inward: causes light rays to come together. Reflected image is upside down.

    Describe a convex mirror.

    The surface is curve outward: causes light rays to spread out (diverge). Reflected image is right side up.

    Describe a concave lens

    Thicker at the edges = causes light rays to spread out (diverge)

    Describe a convex lens

    Thicker at the center = causes light rays to come together.

    Define lens

    Transparent object that has at least one curved surface that causes light to bend.

    What is a mechanical wave?

    A transverse or compressional wave that can only travel through matter.

    Define translucent & give an example.

    Allows only some light to pass. Example: frosted or stained glass.

    What is a compression in a compressional wave?

    Area where molecules are pushed closer together.

    Define diffraction

    Bending of waves around a barrier.

    What does it mean to say a material is transparent?

    Allows nearly all light to pass through.

    What is wave interference?

    The ability of waves to combine and form a new wave.

    Define constructive interference.

    A new wave with greater amplitude is formed. (bigger)

    Define destructive interference.

    A new wave with a smaller amplitude is formed. (smaller)

    What is a compressional wave?

    A type of mechanical wave in which the medium moves forward & backward along the direction of the wave.

    Define reflection.

    When a wave strikes an object/surface and bounces off.

    How does the pitch of sound vary with frequency?

    As the pitch increases, so does the frequency.

    What happens when a wave goes through a small opening?

    Waves will diffract or bend as it goes through through.

    What happens when a wave moves from one medium to another?

    They refract (bend or change directions)

    What is a mechanical transverse wave and give an example

    Wave energy causes matter in the medium to move up and down, perpendicular to the direction of the wave. example: sound

    What is an electromagnetic transverse wave and give an example

    Electric and magnetic fields move up & down perpendicular to the direction of the wave. Does NOT require a medium.

    Define frequency

    The number of waves passing a given point in 1 second.

    Define amplitude

    In a transverse wave = The amount of energy in a wave. 1/2 the distance between the crest and trough.

    Which waves do NOT need a medium in which to travel?

    Electromagnetic Waves (EM Spectrum)

    How does the eye see an object?

    We see light that is reflected off an object. The other colors are absorbed.

    Why are some objects black?

    They absorb all colors.

    Why are some objects white?

    They reflect all colors.

    What is happening when you see a green object like a tree?

    All the colors EXCEPT green are being absorbed.

    What does 60 hertz (Hz) stand for in a wave?

    A wave with a frequency of 60 wavelengths per second.

    What is the relationship of wavelength to frequency in the electromagnetic spectrum?

    As the wavelength increases, the frequency, decreases.

    Define radio waves & what they are useful for.

    A low energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum. They are used in cell phones and radio transmissions.

    What kind of field do moving electrons produce?

    magnetic

    What are gamma rays used for?

    Cancer treatment, killing bacteria in food

    What determines the different colors of visible light?

    The wavelength

    What is pitch?

    The highness or lowness of a sound

    Give two examples of a mechanical wave.

    Sound, Ocean, Earthquake (produces both transverse & compressional waves.

     

    EQ and H/W:____

    1. Explain why winds blow.
    2. Use a station model to explain weather in an area.
    3. Explain land breezes & sea breezes
    4. Explain how lightning & thunder work.
    5. Convert between oC & 0F.
    6. Calculate Relative Humidity.
    7. What are the 4 types of fronts & their symbols.
    8. What are the Freezing pt., Boiling pt., & human body temp for Fahrenheit & Celsius
    9. List 3 ways heat moves
    10. What are isotherms and how are they used?
    11. Explain the greenhouse effect
    12. What is the Composition of Air
    13. Who invented the thermometer & barometer
    14. How is ozone formed & broken down
    15. How does the heating & cooling of land & water differ from each other?
    16. What is the Warmest & coolest part of the day
    17. What is Warmest & coolest part of the year
    18. List the characteristics & order of the layers of the atmosphere
    19. Explain what the light we see from the moon is.
    20. How does the Sun, Moon & Earth all move around each other?
    21. What is the difference between rotating and revolving?
    22. Why is Earth the only planet that we know of that can support life (two reasons)?
    23. What are the phases of the Moon? Name and illustrate 

    24. What is the difference between solstices and equinoxes?  

    25. How are eclipses of the Sun and Moon explained?  

    26. How did the solar system form? 

    27.  How are terrestrial planets different from each other? 

    28. What are the major moons? 

    29. How do moons and rings form? 

    30. What are the differences between planets and dwarf planets? 

    31. How are meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites describe?

     

     

    Test Study Guide

     The following Review should help you organize everything you’ve learned through the Universe unit, so that you can study well for your test. The test will be Friday, May 11. You may copy this review and submit it for extra credit before Friday.

     Electromagnetic Spectrum

     Spectral Analysis—when we look at different elements through diffraction lenses (3-d glasses), what do we learn? Do all elements appear similar when viewed in this way?

    Through Spectral Analysis we learn what colors represent individual elements. The elements each have a specific and individual pattern. They will look very different.

     What is the electromagnetic spectrum?

    It is the entire range of wave lengths of energy that can travel through empty space. They range from broad Radio waves, to high frequency Gamma Waves.

     What do we call the electromagnetic waves that we are able to see? Visible Light

     When objects are moving away from you, do their waves appear stretched or compressed? Stretched

     What happens to the color of a celestial object that is moving away from Earth? Red Shift – they don’t actually become red, they just become redder than they were.

     What happens to the color of a celestial object that is moving toward the Earth? Blue Shift – again, they don’t become blue. They just move more toward the blue end of the spectrum.

     How can spectral analysis help us determine the elements that are within a star? When we look at stars through spectral analysis, we break the light into the unique patterns presented with the elements which are in the star. We compare the spectral analysis of the star to a known element, we can determine if that element is present.

     Hetrzsprung- Russell Diagram

     Define the following terms:

      1. Luminosity -- brightness    
      2. apparent magnitude – how bright a star APPEARS to be from the point of view of the observer.
      3. absolute magnitude how bright a star REALLY is
      4. As you move up the Y axis on the diagram, what happens to brightness? Brightness increases
      5. As you move across the X axis of the diagram, what happens to surface temperature? Surface temperature decreases
      6. Where is the sun found within the H-R diagram? In the Main Sequence
      7.  Sketch an H-R diagram and label the main sequence, white dwarf, and giant/super giant regions on the diagram.
      8.  Why does the sun have such a great apparent magnitude, when it has only an average absolute magnitude? The Sun is very close to us, so it appears to be brighter than it is compared to other stars in the Universe.
      9. Why are red giant stars so bright, when they are among the coolest of stars? Because they are very large. 
      10. Why do white dwarf stars appear so dim, when they are so hot? Because they are very small

     Life Cycles of Stars

     

    • What is the most abundant element in the universe? Hydrogen 
    • What is a nebula? A cloud of gas and dust, from which stars are formed. 
    • What force within a nebula helps the matter within the nebula coalesce? Gravity 
    • Matter in nebulae forms into great spheres and starts to heat up and glow from heat and pressure. What is said to have been formed at this point? A Protostar 
    • What process leads to a star entering the “main sequence” of its cycle? Hydrogen fusion 
    • Draw a flow chart for the life cycle of an average sized star in the space below.   At each phase, describe what has happened in the star’s “life” to cause it to enter or leave that stage. 
    • Draw a flow chart for the life cycle of a very large star in the space below.   At each phase, describe what has happened in the star’s “life” to cause it to enter or leave that stage. 
    • What determines whether a star ultimately becomes a black hole or a neutron star? The mass of a star determines what happens at the end of it’s life cycle. Very large stars become neutron stars, or Black Holes. 
    • What determines whether a star will ultimately explode as a supernova? It’s Larger Mass stars may explode as Super Nova.

     Galaxies

     Sketch and label the three types of galaxies in the space below. Spiral                               Elliptical                           Irregular 

    • What is the name of the galaxy we live in? What type of galaxy is it? Where is our solar system found within this galaxy?

    Milky Way   It is a Spiral Galaxy. Our solar system is found near the end of one arm of the spiral. 

    • Because galaxies and the universe that contains them are so enormous, what unit of measurement is used to describe great distances between stars and galaxies? Light year—the distance that light travels in one year.

     Theoretically, what event caused the expansion of the universe, and created all the matter which has organized into planets, stars, and galaxies over time? The Big Bang

     

    Astronomy Independent Take Home Test 

    Independent Take Home Test: Due ----. Students are required to due independent research. The below questions address information not fully covered in class.

    Test foci:

    • Solar Systems: what is a Solar System in general?  How are they formed?
    • Extrasolar planets: What is an extrasolar planet?  What methods do we use to find extrasolar planets?  Why are they so hard to observe?
    • Our Solar System: What makes it different from other systems?  What kinds of planets to we have in our SS?
    • The planets in our Solar System: What are they?  What are they like?
    • How do Solar Systems fit into the overall, nested structure of the Universe that we have been discussing?
    • What is a dwarf planet?  What makes it different from the 8 classical planets?  Why was Pluto reclassified?
    • What else is in our Solar System?  Asteroids, comets, debris...know what these things are, and what the differences are between them
    • What is a Moon?  What kinds of Moons do we find in our Solar System?
    • What is our Moon?  Why is it important?  What is the surface like?  How does it impact us?
    • Humans have been to the Moon - what is the extent of human space travel?  What is the extent of robotic space travel? 
    • What is a solar eclipse?  What is a lunar eclipse?
    • Meteors, Meteorites, Meteoroids: What are they and what are the differences between them?  What causes a shooting star?  Why are meteors important to understand for understanding life on Earth?
    • Celestial coordinates: How do we locate things on the sky?  What are RA and dec and how do we use them?  What is Zenith?  What is the North Star, Polaris and how can Polaris be used to help navigate?
    • Why do we have seasons?
    • Why does the Moon have phases?
    • How is gravity involved in the structure, formation, etc of our Solar System, Moon, Planets, etc.

     

    Class Notes and Examine review 

    1. You must know these things: Earth's diameter is about 8000 miles Moon's distance is about 60 Earth radii (240,000 miles) Average distance of Earth to Sun is about 93 million miles (150 million km) One light-year is how far light travels in a vacuum in a year, about 6 trillion miles. “Parsec” is short for “parallax of a second of arc” 1 pc ~ 3.26 light-years. Distance in pc is the reciprocal of the parallax in arcsec (d = 1/p).

     
    2.  The Milky Way galaxy is about 75,000 light-years in diameter. The solar system orbits the Galactic center at 220 km/sec on a rather circular orbit. We are about 8000 pc (25,000 light-years) from the center of the Galaxy. Nearby galaxies have distances measured in millions of light-years. The most distant galaxies we can possibly detect are at distances of about 13 billion light-years. When observing them we are looking 13 billion years into the past.
     
    3.  It takes the Moon ~29.5 days to go through its cycles of phases. It just keeps orbiting the Earth, month after month after month. So if you know when full moon or new moon occurs, you can figure out approximately when the last quarter moon occurred, the next quarter moon will occur, or any other phase for that matter. If you can draw a picture of the Moon going around the Earth, with the Sun off to one side, you can understand the phases. You don't really need to memorize what follows on the next few slides!
     
    4.  The Moon goes through phases because it is basically spherical and the angle between the Earth, Moon, and Sun changes day to day. When the Moon is new, it is in the same direction as the Sun, so it rises when the Sun rises and sets when the Sun sets. When the Moon is 50 percent illuminated and at first quarter phase, it is one week (roughly) after new Moon. The first quarter Moon is high in the south at sunset. The first quarter Moon will set at roughly midnight.
     
    5.  The full Moon is full because it is on the opposite part of the sky from the Sun. The full Moon rises at sunset. The full Moon will set approximately at sunrise. A total lunar eclipse can only happen at full Moon. A total lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes into the Earth's shadow. A third quarter Moon occurs a week after full Moon. The third quarter Moon rises roughly at midnight. The third quarter Moon is high in the south at sunrise.
     
    6.  A young crescent Moon occurs between new Moon and first quarter. The young crescent Moon will be visible in the west or SW after sunset. It will set before midnight. The gibbous Moon between first quarter and full Moon is visible in the east (maybe SE) after sunset and will be visible most of the night. The old gibbous Moon occurs between the time of full Moon and third quarter. The old gibbous Moon will rise in mid-evening and will be visible all night. The old crescent Moon rises long after midnight. It can be seen in the east or southeast before sunrise.
     
    7.  Why do radio telescopes (or radio telescope arrays) have to be so large? a. To gather more photons, as radio signals are very weak b. To achieve better resolution, as this is a function of wavelength and the wavelengths of radio waves are long c. Because each dish has a short focal length, and magnification is a function of focal length

     Home work due:  (Pick up travel chart in class)

    1. What are the 3 types of crusts in a convergent boundary?
    2. What formation is an example of a convergent boundary?
    3. Define divergent boundary.
    4. What formation is an example of a divergent boundary?
    5. What formation is an example of a transform boundary?
    6. Define Earthquake.
    7. What is the difference between a seismogram and a seismograph?
    8. Define epicenter.
    9. Define focus.
    10. What is triangulation and why is it so important?
    11. Which of the 3 layers of Earth are the heaviest?
    12. Which layers of Earth do P-waves travel through?
    13. Which seismic wave travels the fastest?
    14. Which layers of Earth do S-waves travel through?
    15. Which type of seismic waves causes the most damage?
    16. What is seafloor spreading and what is created there?
    17. What is seafloor spreading and what is created there?
    18. How long does it take a P-wave to travel 4,000 km? __________________
    19. How long does it take an S-wave to travel 4,000 km? _________________
    20. If an earthquake occurs at 08:50:40, what time did the P-wave arrive at a seismic station 2,600 km away?
    21. If an S-wave arrives at a station 4,400 km away at 07:45:00, what time did the earthquake originate?
    22. How far can an S-wave travel in 9 minutes? _____________________
    23. How far can a P-wave travel in 6 minutes 40 seconds? ________________

     

    E.Q. For ______

    EQ 1: What causes ocean currents?

    EQ 2: Can climate change affect global currents?

    EQ 3: Name five factors that affect the quality, availbility and distribution of Earth's water./

    EQ 4: What are Pointsource and Nonpoint source pollution?

    EQ 5:  What role do ocean currents play in the distribution of heat from equatorial regions to the poles?

    Answer all questions using complete sentences.

     

    Week of _______: One of Four Pre-Exam Review Worksheets (Due ______)

    These are your final examination essay questions. They will count as 20% of your final examination.  Two of these questions will be selected for you to answer during your regular class period _______.  You will be graded on your scientific information and your writing skills. Your answers must be specific, no generalized answers.  You must give specific examples and include definitions of any scientific terms (underline the term) included in your explanations. Labeled diagrams are to accompany your essays.

    1. Describe how the relative positions of the Earth, Sun & Moon affect tides, the seasons and the lunar /solar eclipses.  Include dates for seasons & use diagrams to help with your descriptions.
    2. Distinguish between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.  Be sure to explain how they form and how each one is classified. State two specific examples of each rock type.  Include a diagram of the rock cycle.
    3. Define plate tectonics.  Then describe each of the four types of plate boundaries, what features occur there, and what is believed to be the cause of plate movement.  Include diagrams.
    4. Describe the position of air masses, cloud types, weather conditions, and symbols used for cold, warm, and stationary fronts.
    5. Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable resources

     

    Answer the Things to know Questions (Due ______)

     

    1. Describe the relative motions of plates.
    2. List & explain Wegener’s evidence for continental drift.
    3. Describe the relationship between volcanoes, earthquakes, & plate boundaries.
    4. List & describe evidence for the theory of Sea Floor Spreading.
    5. Explain convection currents & how they are related to density.
    6. List plate boundary information by: plate type (O-O, O-C, C-C); formations that are made there; plate names involved; & specific examples around the world.
    7. List some sources of material for continental growth.
    8. How do coal deposits in Antarctica provide evidence for plate tectonics?
    1. Name the 3 most abundant gases found in magma.
    2. Compare & contrast the characteristics of felsic & mafic magmas.
    3. Explain the use of a time-travel graph.
    4. How many seismograph stations are needed to locate an Earthquake?
    5. Compare & contrast P, L, & S waves.
    6. What are the 3 forces rock experiences.
    7. What type of Earthquakes cause the most damage?

     

    Section Two

    1. Describe the movement of water in the water cycle, include the water budget & all definitions of terms.  2. Where is most of the usable fresh water found?  3. List 2 factors that affect porosity.  4. Describe & label an artesian formation.  5. List factors that affect the depth of the water table.  6. Compare & contrast ordinary wells & artesian wells.  7. Explain why groundwater is nearly the same cool temperature all year long.  8. Discuss the origins of hot springs, including geysers, paint pots, & fumaroles.  9. Discuss the origin of minerals in groundwater & list some factors that control the mineral content of groundwater. 10. Why do stalactites & stalagmites only form when a cave is above the water table?

     

    Define each word in the vocabulary list below. Pick any ten word and illustrate each.

     

    evaporation                             condensation               precipitation                air mass           cloud  

    tornado                                    hurricane                     thunderstorm               tornado            front   

    relative humidity                     saturated                     specific humidity        Cumulus          sleet

    super cooled water                  Stratus                         acid rain                      Nimbo             fog

    high pressure                           thermometer                dew point                    Warning          Alto

    wind chill factor                     barometer                    thermometer                snow                Cirro

    anemometer                             weather vane               isotherms                     isobars             ozone  

    greenhouse effect                   lightning                      cloud seeding              thunder            hail     

    Tornado alley                          Beaufort scale             station model              leeward           Cirrus

    temperature inversion             windward                    pressure gradient         jet stream       Watch

    low pressure                           conduction                  convection                   radiation          rain

    El Nino                                    Thermometer              Barometer                   Galileo            Torricelli Weather                                   Meteorology               Beaufort Scale            Wind Chill             Air                          Specific Humidity          Troposphere                Stratosphere                Mesosphere     Frost

    Thermosphere                         Ionosphere                  Radiation                    Conduction     Dew             Convection                                 Greenhouse Effect             Isotherms                   Hygrometer     Ozone    Relative Humidity                 Psychrometer              Dew Point                   Capacity          Saturated

    Section Three

    1. Explain why winds blow.
    2. Use a station model to explain weather in an area.
    3. Explain land breezes & sea breezes
    4. Explain how lightning & thunder work.
    5. Convert between oC & 0F.
    6. Calculate Relative Humidity.
    7. What are the 4 types of fronts & their symbols.
    8. What are the Freezing pt., Boiling pt., & human body temp for Fahrenheit & Celsius
    9. List 3 ways heat moves
    10. What are isotherms and how are they used?
    11. Explain the greenhouse effect
    12. What is the Composition of Air
    13. Who invented the thermometer & barometer
    14. How is ozone formed & broken down
    1. How does the heating & cooling of land & water differ from each other?
    2. What is the Warmest & coolest part of the day
    3. What is Warmest & coolest part of the year
    4. List the characteristics & order of the layers of the atmosphere
    5.  

    Home Work Due _____

    • What percentage of the Earth is covered by water?

     

    • Of the total amount of water on Earth (100%), how much (%) is salt water and how much is fresh water?

     

    • What are the 6 categories of water on the Earth?
    • What are the 4 characteristics of water?
    • Draw and explain what occurs at each step of the water cycle.
    • Give examples of how water exists as solid, liquid and gas on Earth.
    • Fresh water and salt water are a mixture. What makes up each type of water?
    • What is the density of fresh water and at what temperature will it freeze?
    • What factors contribute to the salinity levels in the ocean?

     

     

    Classroom Activity _____

    Weather and Climate Study Guide

     

     

    1. Water Cycle: the continuous process by which water is used and re-used on earth; responsible for weather and climate.
      1. Evaporation: when a liquid (water) is changed to a gas (water vapor) because it has been heated by the sun
      2. Condensation: when a gas (water vapor) changes to a liquid (water droplets) because it has been cooled Water vapor must lose heat energy to form these clouds.
    1. This process forms clouds.
      1. Precipitation: rain, sleet, snow, or ice that falls from the sky to earth; happens when the clouds become too full or heavy; measured with a rain gauge
      2. Transpiration: when plants give off water vapor through their stomata (tiny wholes in their leaves)

                             This allows plants control over the amount of water that stays stored in their leaves.

                             Excess (extra) water is released into the atmosphere/air

     

    1. Weather: the state of the atmosphere at a given time; the short-term conditions, such as temperature, precipitation, wind, humidity, and air pressure.

     

    1. Climate: the pattern of weather over a long period of time (the average weather conditions, usually over many years)
      1. Climate is affected by temperature, precipitation, latitude, wind, ocean currents, and the shape of the land (mountains-colder temperatures at the top of mountain)

     

    1. Humidity: the amount of water in the air; measured by a hygrometer

     

    1. Temperature: measured by a thermometer

     

    1. Air pressure: the weight of the atmosphere; measured by a barometer
      1. High pressure: cool, dry conditions (clear skies)
      2. Low pressure: warm, wet conditions (stormy or rainy)

     

    1. Wind: caused by changes in temperature; moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure; wind speed is measured by an anemometer; wind direction is measured by a wind vane.

     

    1. Prevailing winds: winds that constantly blow from the same direction.
      1. Our prevailing winds are known as the “prevailing westerlies
    1. (always blow from west to east)

     

    1. Jet Stream: a wavy air current in the upper atmosphere that has a powerful influence on the weather because it is a boundary between cold and warm air
      1. It flows from west to east
      2. It changes location depending on global conditions

     

     

     

    *winds at the beach change direction between day and night because of changes of    temperature of the land and water*

    1. Sea Breeze: winds that blow from the sea toward the land; happens during the daytime when the air is cooler (high pressure) over the water and warmer (low pressure) over the land.

     

    1. Land Breeze: winds that blow from the land toward the sea; happens during the nighttime when the air is cooler (high pressure) over the land and warmer (low pressure) over the sea.

     

    1. Cumulus clouds: large, puffy clouds that look like cotton balls or cotton candy
      1. Name means “heap”
      2. Usually mean fair weather, but can bring rain
      3. Usually white in color

     

    1. Cirrus clouds: thin, wispy clouds that form high in the sky
      1. May contain ice crystals
      2. Usually white in color
      3. Associated with fair weather and high pressure
      4. Name means “curl of hair”

     

    1. Stratus clouds: low, flat clouds that form in layers
      1. Cause fog to form
      2. Usually gray in color
      3. Typically associated with rain or snow
      4. Cover the sky like a blanket

     

    1. Nimbus clouds: rain clouds

     

    1. Cumulonimbus clouds: very tall clouds which produce stormy weather
      1. Usually gray or black in color
      2. Very tall
      3. Also known as “thunderheads”

     

    1. Tropical Climate Zone: found near the equator; hot year-round; heavy precipitation
      1. Aligns with the tropical rain forest biome

     

    1. Temperate Climate Zone: cold winters, warm summers, moderate precipitation
      1. This is the climate zone in which we live.

     

    1. Desert Climate Zone: hot summers, cool winters, light precipitation
      1. Aligns with the desert biome.

     

    1. Mountain Climate Zone: cold winters, cool summers, moderate to heavy precipitation

     

    1. Polar Climate Zone: cold year-round; light precipitation
      1. Aligns with the tundra and taiga biomes.
    1. El Niño: a short-term climate change which happens as a result of an abnormal cooling of surface ocean currents in the Pacific Ocean (by California) due to oscillation(moving back and forth) ; happens every 2 to 10 years. Can cause drought (very little rain for long period of time)       or flooding on the Pacific coast of South America

     

     

    1. La Niña: a short-term climate change which happens as a result of an abnormal cooling of surface ocean currents in the Pacific Ocean (by California) ; due to oscillation(moving back and forth, happens every 3 to 7 years. Impacts the climate of North and South America for long periods of time.

     

    1. Gulf Stream: a warm ocean current (always there) in the Atlantic Ocean that influences weather along the east coast of the United States

     

      1. Makes winters by the beach/coast of North Carolina have milder/warmer temperatures than areas not by the Atlantic Ocean
      2. It moderates weather to not be too cold or too hot along the eastern seaboard, warming the air and land during the cooler months
      3. Summers tend to be a bit cooler due to Sea Breezes

     

     

    Additional Information:

    • All weather occurs in the atmosphere. Most weather occurs in the lowest layer of the atmosphere, called the troposphere.

     

    • Land heats up faster than water, and also cools down faster than water.

     

    • Most evaporation occurs over oceans because there is more water to evaporate.

     

    • Clouds forms when water vapor condenses into water droplets.       These water droplets combine with dust in the atmosphere to form visible clouds.

     

    • When warm air and cool air collide (differences in air pressure), wind forms.

     

    • Convection Currents- Warm air rises. As it rises high into the atmosphere, it begins to cool, which therefore causes it to sink.

     

    • Hurricanes: major storms that form over warm ocean water and are caused by global weather patterns
      • Hurricanes slow down when they don’t have warm air/wet air to fuel them and they reach land

     

    Classroom Activity ____

    Atmosphere WebQuest Parts 1 and 2

    Day One and Day Two: Students will have the opportunity to complete PART 1 in the Computer Lab.

    Day Three: Student will have the opportunity to complete PART 2 in the Class Room.

    BOTH parts of the WebQuest are DUE by ______. THIS WILL COUNT AS A PROJECT GRADE.

     

    Comments (-1)
     

     

    Classroom Activity _______

    Procedure: Students will read a text selection about the carbon cycle and try to create a diagram.

    1. Read the selection and review notes below about the carbon cycle.
    2. As you read, draw what happens to carbon as it travels through the cycle.
    3. Use arrows to show when carbon moves from one place to the next.
    4. Make sure to label your drawing and include captions that explain where the carbon is, and what is happening to it as it moves from place to place.

     

    After completing this Lab, you should be able to:

    • Explain how carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases absorb infrared radiation and warm the lower atmosphere.
    • Explain how scientists use historical ice core CO2 and temperature data in combination with more current CO2 and temperature data to reveal the relationship between trends in global temperatures and atmospheric CO2 levels.

    Extensions: Students will make a 3D display of the carbon cycle like a diorama or mobile. Students will write a story or narrative to go along with the display. Students will have one day for planning and preparation, one day for building and one day for presenting.

    Keeping Track of What the Students Learn

    Throughout these labs, you will find three kinds of questions.

    • Checking In questions are intended to keep students engaged and focused on key concepts and to allow them to periodically check if the material is making sense. These questions are often accompanied by hints or answers to let them know if they are on the right track.
    • Stop and Think questions are intended to help the teacher assess student’s understanding of the key concepts and skills they should be learning from the lab activities and readings.
    • Discuss questions are intended to get students talking with their neighbor. These questions require students to pull some concepts together or apply their knowledge in a new situation.

    Classroom Notes

    • The Carbon Cycle

     

    Carbon is an element. It is part of oceans, air, rocks, soil and all living things. Carbon doesn’t stay in one place. It is always on the move! Carbon moves from the atmosphere to plants. In the atmosphere, carbon is attached to oxygen in a gas called carbon dioxide (CO2). With the help of the Sun, through the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is pulled from the air to make plant food from carbon.

    Carbon moves from plants to animals. Through food chains, the carbon that is in plants moves to the animals that eat them. Animals that eat other animals get the carbon from their food too. Carbon moves from plants and animals to the ground.

    When plants and animals die, their bodies, wood and leaves decay bringing the carbon into the ground. Some becomes buried miles underground and will become fossil fuels in millions and millions of years.

    Carbon moves from living things to the atmosphere. Each time you exhale, you are releasing carbon dioxide gas (CO2) into the atmosphere. Animals and plants get rid of carbon dioxide gas through a process called respiration. Carbon moves from fossil fuels to the atmosphere when fuels are burned.

    When humans burn fossil fuels to power factories, power plants, cars and trucks, most of the carbon quickly enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide gas. Each year, five and a half billion tons of carbon is released by burning fossil fuels. That’s the weight of 100 million adult African elephants! Of the huge amount of carbon that is released from fuels, 3.3 billion tons enters the atmosphere and most of the rest becomes dissolved in seawater. Carbon moves from the atmosphere to the oceans. The oceans, and other bodies of water, soak up some carbon from the atmosphere. Animals that live in the ocean use the carbon to build their skeletons and shells. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and traps heat in the atmosphere. Without it and other greenhouse gases, Earth would be a frozen world. But humans have burned so much fuel that there is about 30% more carbon dioxide in the air today than there was about 150 years ago. The atmosphere has not held this much carbon for at least 420,000 years according to data from ice cores. More greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide in our atmosphere are causing our planet to become warmer. Carbon moves through our planet over longer time scales as well. For example, over millions of years weathering of rocks on land may add carbon to surface water which eventually runs off to the ocean. Chemical weathering of silicate minerals, in particular, can have an effect on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Additionally, over long time scales, carbon is removed from seawater when the shells and bones of marine animals and plankton collect on the sea floor. These shells and bones are made of limestone, which contains carbon. When they are deposited on the sea floor, carbon is stored from the rest of the carbon cycle for some amount of time. The amount of limestone deposited in the ocean depends somewhat on the amount of warm, tropical, shallow oceans on the planet because this is where prolific limestone-producing organisms such as corals live. The carbon can be released back to the atmosphere if the limestone melts or is metamorphosed in a subduction zone.

     

    • Drawing:

     

    1. Page 688: Explain how photosynthesis and respiration cycle carbon between living things and Earth’s atmosphere. 

    Quiz

    1. Which of the following is NOT a vital component of the carbon cycle? A. Photosynthesizers take carbon from the atmosphere and turn it into sugars, proteins, lipids, and other vital materials for life. B. Oxygen-breathers break down organic materials into energy and carbon dioxide, which they release back into the atmosphere. C. Geologic activity releases carbon in the form of volcanic gases. D. The ocean absorbs carbon in the form of carbonic acid or calcium carbonate. E. None of the above.

    Answer to Question #1

    E is correct. All of the options above are important components of the carbon cycle.

    1. Which of the following is NOT true of carbon levels in Earth’s atmosphere? A. The composition of Earth’s atmosphere has changed drastically over time. B. Drastic changes to the temperature of Earth’s surface have happened as a result of changes in the atmosphere’s carbon levels. C. Mass extinctions have occurred as a result of changes to the atmosphere’s carbon levels. D. It is impossible to significantly change the carbon levels in Earth’s atmosphere.

    Answer to Question #2

    D is correct. The carbon levels of Earth’s atmosphere have been changed drastically in the past by both geological processes and living things. These changes have led to extreme changes in the Earth’s climate.

    1. Which of the following would NOT be a possible outcome if the carbon cycle were severely disrupted? A. Severe global cooling as a result of fewer greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. B. Severe global warming as a result of more greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. C. Drastic changes to ocean ecosystems due to changing ocean acidity. D. Drastic changes to land ecosystems as a result of changing temperatures and weather patterns. E. None of the above.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Key Questions for the Week of _____

    1. What era do we live in? Answer: We live in the Holocene Epoch, of the Quaternary Period, in the Cenozoic Era (of the Phanerozoic Eon).
    2. What time period are we living in? In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age but shorter than a period. The current epoch is the Holocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period. Rock layers deposited during an epoch are called a series.

     

     What era do we live in? Answer: We live in the Holocene Epoch, of the Quaternary Period, in the Cenozoic Era (of the Phanerozoic Eon).

    1. What time period are we living in? In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age but shorter than a period. The current epoch is the Holocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period. Rock layers deposited during an epoch are called a series.

    Weekly Plan:

    • Week 13 : Students will answer the following questions and turn in by ______

       IGNEOUS ROCKS

      SECTION 5.1 What are igneous rocks?

      In your textbook, read about the nature of igneous rocks.

      Use each of the terms below just once to complete the following statements.  

      basaltic igneous rock rhyolitic lava magma

       

      1. Molten rock inside Earth’s crust is called ______________________.

      2. A(n) ______________________ is formed from the crystallization of magma.

      3. Magma that flows out onto Earth’s surface is called ______________________.

      4. Magma that has a low silica content is called ______________________.

      5. ______________________ magma has the highest silica content .

       

      In your textbook, read about the composition and origins of magma.

      For each statement below, write true or false.

      _________________________ 6. Magma is often a slushy mix of molten rock, gases,  and mineral crystals.

      _________________________ 7. The elements found in magma are quite different  from those found in Earth’s crust.

      _________________________ 8. Silica is the most abundant compound found in magma.

      _________________________ 9. Magmas are classified as basaltic, andesitic, or rhyolitic.

      _________________________ 10. In the laboratory, rocks must be heated from 8000°C to  12 000°C before they melt.

      _________________________ 11. Heat in the upper mantle and lower crust may come,  in part, from the decay of radioactive elements.

       

      SECTION 5.1 What are igneous rocks?, continued

      In your textbook, read about factors that affect magma formation.

      Use the diagram to answer the following questions.

       

      12. How does pressure affect the melting point of rock?

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      13. Do all minerals have the same melting point?

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      14. How does temperature change with depth in Earth’s crust?

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      15. How does pressure change with depth, and why?

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      In your textbook, read about how rocks melt.

      Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.

      elements fractional crystallization reverse

      magma melting points partial melting

      Because different minerals have different (16) ______________________ , not all parts of 

      a rock melt at the same time. The process whereby some minerals melt at low temperatures 

      while other minerals remain solid is called (17) ______________________. As each group of 

      minerals melts, different (18) ______________________ are added to the magma mixture 

      changing its composition. When the magma cools, it crystallizes in the (19) ______________________ 

      order of partial melting. The process wherein different minerals form at different temperatures 

      is called (20) ______________________. As each group of minerals crystallizes, it removes 

      elements from the remaining (21) ______________________ instead of adding new elements.

       

      SECTION 5.1 What are igneous rocks?, continued

      In your textbook, read about Bowen’s reaction series.

      Label the diagram using either continuous reaction series or discontinuous reaction series.

       

      Answer the following questions. Use the diagram to answer Questions 24 and 25.

      24. The first feldspars to form are rich in what mineral?

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      25. The second feldspars to form are rich in what mineral?

      ______________________________________________________________________________

      26. What causes a zoned crystal?

      ______________________________________________________________________________

      ______________________________________________________________________________

      ______________________________________________________________________________

      27. How is quartz formed?

      ______________________________________________________________________________

      ______________________________________________________________________________

      SECTION 5.1 What are igneous rocks?, continued

      In your textbook, read about Bowen’s reaction series.

      Label the diagram using either continuous reaction series or discontinuous reaction series.

       

      Answer the following questions. Use the diagram to answer Questions 24 and 25.

      24. The first feldspars to form are rich in what mineral?

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      25. The second feldspars to form are rich in what mineral?

      ______________________________________________________________________________

      26. What causes a zoned crystal?

      ______________________________________________________________________________

      ______________________________________________________________________________

      ______________________________________________________________________________

      27. How is quartz formed?

      ______________________________________________________________________________

      ______________________________________________________________________________

       

      SECTION 5.2 Classification of Igneous Rock

      In your textbook, read about the mineral composition of igneous rocks.

      Complete the table by filling in one of the following terms: granitic, basaltic, intermediate, or ultramafic.

       

      Description Type of Igneous Rock

      1. May be formed by fractional crystallization of olivine and pyroxene

      2. Contains moderate amounts of biotite, amphibole, and pyroxene

      3. Light-colored, high silica content, contains quartz

      4. Contains plagioclase, biotite, amphibole, pyroxene, and olivine

      5. Peridotite and dunites are examples.

      6. Dark-colored, low silica content, rich in iron and magnesium

      7. Diorite in an example.

      8. Gabbro is an example.

      9. Granite is an example.

      10.Low silica content, very high iron and magnesium content

       

       In your textbook, read about the grain size of igneous rocks.

      Answer the following questions.

      11. Does obsidian, a glassy rock, have a large grain size or a small grain size?

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      12. Is obsidian an intrusive or extrusive igneous rock? How do you know?

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      13. How does the texture of gabbro compare to that of obsidian?

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      14. Is gabbro an intrusive or extrusive igneous rock? How do you know?

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

       

      SECTION 5.2 Classification of Igneous Rocks, continued

      In your textbook, read about classifying igneous rocks.

      For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B. 

      Column A Column B

      ______ 15. Rock such as peridotite, which has low silica content and         very high levels of iron and magnesium

      ______ 16. Rock with two different-sized grains of the same mineral

      ______ 17. Rock such as gabbro, which is dark-colored, has low         silica content, and is rich in iron and magnesium.

      ______ 18. Vein of extremely large-grained minerals

      ______ 19. Rare type of ultramafic rock that can contain diamonds

      ______ 20. Rock such as granite, which is light-colored and has high silica content

       

      In your textbook, read about the texture of igneous rocks.

      Answer the following questions.

      21. Why do geologists make thin sections?

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      22. Describe the differences in how an intrusive igneous rock and an extrusive igneous rock form.

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      23. Why can minerals that form early in fractional crystallization grow distinct crystal shapes?

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      24. What does a rock with a porphyritic texture look like?

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      25. How do porphyritic textures form?

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      ____________________________________________________________________________________

      SECTION 5.2 Classification of Igneous Rocks, continued

      In your textbook, read about igneous rocks as resources.

      Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

      26. Igneous rocks are strong because of their 

      a. temperature. c. water content.

      b. color. d. interlocking grain textures.

      27. Which of the following is one of the most durable igneous rocks? a. granite c. marble

      b. sandstone d. limestone

      28. Igneous rocks tend to be

      a. radioactive. c. resistant to weathering.

      b. full of gold. d. vulnerable to weathering.

      29. Igneous intrusions often are associated with valuable

      a. radioactive elements. c. oil reservoirs.

      b. ore deposits. d. fossil deposits

      30. Ore deposits such as gold sometimes are found as a(n)

      a. vein. c. obsidian deposit.

      b. extrusion. d. molten rock.

      31. Metal-rich quartz veins are formed at the end of

      a. volcanic eruptions. c. magma crystallization.

      b. radioactive decay. d. the cooling of Earth’s crust.

      32. What are pegmatites?

      a. veins of extremely large-grained minerals c. microscopic, interlocking crystal grains

      b. magmas of differing densities d. small volcanoes

      33. What are kimberlites?

      a. felsic rocks c. intermediate rocks

      b. mafic rocks d. ultramafic rocks

      34. Diamonds can form only

      a. under very low pressure. c. above ground.

      b. under very high pressure. d. near radioactive elements.

       

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    Date Due: 11/21/2019

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  • Student made study guide

    Preparing for future test and exams

     

    How to Create a Study Guide

    During the remainder of this course, you will be required to process a great deal of information. Whether organizing notes taken during lectures, or summarizing a chapter in the textbook, you will need an effective way to learn the concepts and remember them, since your knowledge of the subject will be tested on a weekly basis.

    Creating a Study Guide is an ideal way to record and organize all of the information and prepare you for a future test or exam. Study

    Guides are a proven methodology that will help you outline and remember the important pieces of information.

    As you create your study guide, you are reinforcing the concepts which will aid in memory recall.

     

    To create an effective study guide:

    • Identify key points from your notes taken during class, and make a list.
    • If there are any vocabulary terms you need to know and remember, write them down, along with the definition.
    • During or after reading one chapter, use your own words and add key concepts from the chapter. A key concept is a principal or important fact, main idea, statistic, etc. Each heading or paragraph typically contains a key concept.
    • Create a visual representation or outline to better organize your information and retain the material learned in class or from assigned reading.
    • Combine notes taken in class with your chapter summaries and add any additional content from the class.
    • Think of questions to ask yourself and add the answers to your study guide. (List 3 things you learned; create three questions with correct answers for each of those three things (9 questions) and explain how what you have learned can be used in a real world situation).
    • Review your study guide frequently in a quiet environment so that your whole focus is on remembering and reflecting upon the material.

     

    1. Engage both your right and left brain by using symbols and words. This helps increase understanding and retention.
    2. Every Thursday during class you may form your own study group and collaborate from your Study Guides.
    3. Collapse and expand subtopics as you study them and test yourself.
    4. After receiving your graded quiz, add the questions to the Study Guide topic. Use additional notes to record answers

     

    Submit study guides weekly for a summative assessment grade

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  • Study Guide January 20, 2020

    Study Guide for Earth Science

    Test on Unit 2: History of Life

    Test 1/20

    Study Guide due 1/15 worth 5 points added to Test Grade

     

    • What are the units of geologic time?
    • What are some organisms that existed during the Precambrian period?
    • What was the date range for Precambrian Time?
    • What were some organisms that existed during the Paleozoic Era?
    • What was the mass extinction that caused the end of the Paleozoic Era?
    • Paleozoic Era was known as the Age of what?
    • What was the date range for the Paleozoic Era?
    • What were some organisms that existed during the Mesozoic Era?
    • What was the mass extinction that caused the end of the Mesozoic Era?
    • Mesozoic Era was known as the Age of what?
    • What were some organisms that existed during the Cenozoic Era?
    • What are the date ranges of the Cenozoic Era?
    • Cenozoic Era is known as the Age of what?
    • What is current time (include Eon, Era, Period and Epoch)?
    • What is greenhouse effect?
    • What is Global Warming?
    • What is happening in parts of Alaska?
    • Define time
    • What are the steps of the carbon cycle?
    • What are the forms of alternative energy?
    • What are fossil fuels?
    • In a Venn Diagram, show the difference between a renewable natural resource and a nonrenewable natural resource?
    • What are fossils?
    • What are the different types of fossils?
    • When is this TEST? 

     

    1.  
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  • Exam Prep

    Earth Science Midterm Exam Study Guide

     

    1. What is the difference between renewable natural resources and non-renewable natural resources?

    2. What is conservation of Earth’s resources?

    3. For a resource to be considered “green” it must be what 2 things?

    4. What are some alternative energy choices we can make now?

    5. How do natural disasters impact humans?

    6. What are the 3 types of rocks?

    7. What are the processes involved with the formation of sedimentary rock?

    8. What are the processes involved with the formation of metamorphic rock?

    9. What are the processes involved with the formation of igneous rock?

    10. Name the 2 types of igneous rock?

    11. What are the 6 physical properties of rocks and minerals?

    12. What are the 2 chemical properties of rocks and minerals?

    13. Fill in the blanks:

    Label: weathering and erosion, melting and cooling, heat and pressure, sedimentary rock, igneous rock and metamorphic rock

    15. Define sediments.

    16. Define rock cycle.

    17.  What’s the difference between extrusive rock and intrusive rock?

    18. What is soil made up of?

    19. How does soil form?

    20. What 3 factors impact weathering rates of rocks?

    21. Which type of climate will rock weather faster in?

    22. Explain the process of convection.

    23. Describe the formation of convection currents in the mantle.

    24. Explain how the parts of a convection current in the mantle are related to plate motion.

    25. Who was Wegener and what did he contribute to science?

    26. Define Pangaea.

    27. Define subduction zone.

    28. What are the 3 types of crusts in a convergent boundary?

    29. What formation is an example of a convergent boundary?

    30. Define divergent boundary.

    31. What formation is an example of a divergent boundary?

    32. What formation is an example of a transform boundary?

    33. Define Earthquake.

    34. What is the difference between a seismogram and a seismograph?

    35. Define epicenter.

    36. Define focus.

    37. What is triangulation and why is it so important?

    38. Which of the 3 layers of Earth are the heaviest?

    39. Which layers of Earth do P-waves travel through?

    40. Which seismic wave travels the fastest?

    41. Which layers of Earth do S-waves travel through?

    42. Which type of seismic waves causes the most damage?

    43. What is seafloor spreading and what is created there?

    44. What is seafloor spreading and what is created there?

    45. How long does it take a P-wave to travel 4,000 km? __________________

    46. How long does it take an S-wave to travel 4,000 km? _________________

    47. If an earthquake occurs at 08:50:40, what time did the P-wave arrive at a seismic station 2,600 km away?

    48. If an S-wave arrives at a station 4,400 km away at 07:45:00, what time did the earthquake originate?

    49. How far can an S-wave travel in 9 minutes? _____________________

    50. How far can a P-wave travel in 6 minutes 40 seconds? ________________

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  • Finding the Epicenter

    Thursday and Friday:

                     

    SEISMOGRAPH LAB

    Objective: To learn how to read seismogram printouts from a seismograph. To learn how to read the ESRT's Earthquake P-Wave and S-Wave Travel Time chart.

    Introduction: Earthquakes occur when there is movement along a _________ in the earth's crust. The movement along this line produces shock waves (seismic waves) that are sent out in all directions through the earth. ________________ are scientific instruments which record the shaking of the earth's crust. There are 3 types of waves that are sent out when an earthquake occurs.

    Compressional waves or ___-waves vibrate in the direction they travel. This wave travels (fastest or slowest) and is the (first or second) wave to reach a seismic station. These waves can travel through all substances and layers of the earth.

    Shear waves or ___-waves vibrate perpendicular to their direction of travel. These waves travel (fastest or slowest) and are the (first or second) wave to reach a seismic station. Secondary waves can only travel through solids therefore they can not travel through the _____________ of the earth because it is a liquid. Scientists have created both P and S waves in the laboratory and have seen that S-waves do not travel through liquids, therefore they assume the outer core must be liquid.

    Longitudinal Waves or L-Waves are very slow waves which move in many directions. They are responsible for the destruction on land caused by earthquakes.

    Vocabulary: Seismograph - Time lag - Fault - Origin Time - Earthquake -

     Procedure: Use the ESRT and your brain to answer the questions that follow, make sure you put all your answers on the Answer Sheet at the back of the lab. 

    Practice Questions: Friday H/W (Due _________)

     

    1. How long does it take a P-Wave to travel 2000 km? _________
    2. How long does it take an S-Wave to travel 2000 km? _________
    3. How far will an S-Wave travel in 15 minutes? ___________
    4. What is the time lag (difference) in minutes and seconds if you are 4000 km away? ________
    5. What is the time lag if you are 2000 km away? _________________
    6. A seismologist is reading a seismogram which was recorded on her seismograph. She calculates the difference in arrival time between P and S waves to be 5 minutes and 40 seconds. How far away is the earthquake from the seismic station? __________ km
    7. How far away is an earthquake from a seismic station if the lag time between the arrival of the P and S waves is 3 minutes? _______________km

      

    1. H) Calculate the lag time AND distance to epicenter for the seismographs below. Be sure to find the time interval for EACH seismograph first!

     A            

    Lag Time: ______________________

    Distance to Epicenter: _____________km

     B    

    Lag Time: ______________________

     Distance to Epicenter: _____________km

     C    

    Lag Time: ______________________

                                                                            

    Distance to Epicenter: _____________km

     

     Answer these questions on the Answer Sheet ( Monday H/W due ________)

    1. How many minutes does it take an S wave to travel 3000 km?
    2. How far does an S wave travel in 19 minutes?
    3. How many minutes does it take an S wave to travel 1000 km?
    4. How many minutes does it take a P wave to travel 2000 km?
    5. How far does a P wave travel in 8 minutes?
    6. How far does a P wave travel in 4 minutes?
    7. If a P wave arrives in 7 minutes, when will the S wave arrive?
    8. If the S wave arrived in 4 minutes, when did the P wave arrive?
    9. If the lag time between P and S wave arrival is 4 minutes, what is the distance to the epicenter?
    10. If the lag time between P and S wave arrival is 10 minutes, what is the distance to the epicenter?
    11. If the S wave arrived 6 minutes after the P wave, what is the distance to the epicenter?
    12. An earthquake occurred 4600 km away, what is the lag time?
    13. An earthquake occurred 7000 km away, what is the lag time?
    14. An earthquake occurred 2000 km away, what is the difference in arrival time between P and S waves?
    15. An earthquake is 9000 km away, when will the P wave arrive?
    16. An earthquake occurred at 10:00:00am today and is 4200 km away. At what time did the P wave arrive?
    17. Same question as 16, at what time did the S wave arrive?
    18. An earthquake occurred at 7:14:00pm and is located 2000 km from the seismic station. At what time will the S-wave arrive at the station?
    19. A seismic station is 5800 km from an earthquake. It recorded the arrival of the P-wave at 8:12:00am. At what time did the earthquake occur? (think about it!)
    20. The lag time for an earthquake is 3 minutes 40 seconds. If the earthquake occurred at 1:37:00am, when did the P wave arrive?
    21. Extra Credit - A seismic station in New York records the P and S waves times for an earthquake that occurred in Los Angeles California. The P wave arrived exactly at 10:10am. When did the earthquake occur local time in Los Angeles?

     Read the following Seismograms and determine the lag time and distance to the epicenter.:

     Conclusion Questions

     

    1. What information can you gather regarding an earthquake, if you have P and S wave readings from one seismic station?

      

    1. Describe the motion of a P wave and an S wave as it travels through the earth. Include a diagram of how each wave travels.

      

    1. How does the lag time for a seismic station close to an earthquake compare with the lag time from a seismic station that is further away? Graph the relationship between time lag (y-axis) and distance from an earthquake (x-axis).

      

    1. Why do scientists think the outer core of the earth is liquid?

      

    1. What happens to the velocity of an earthquake wave as it moves through denser material?

     

    1. Describe the events that cause an earthquake, then describe the order of event that happen after an earthquake which lets seismologist determine the distance to the earthquake.

     

     ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    Monday - Wednesday (________)

      Title: Finding the Epicenter Name____________________

    Introduction: Most earthquakes occur in remote areas where no one lives. They sometimes occur

    underwater in oceans. They may leave a scar on the land where the fault slips but sometimes they do not.

    Even if no one is at the epicenter (location where the fault slips) scientists can locate it. In this activity, you will

    learn how p and s waves are used to find the epicenter and find the location of two epicenters. You will use a

    principal called “triangulation”. To triangulate, you find the distance a place is from 3 other locations. Using

    three points, it can only be in one place. Triangulation is the same technology used in your GPS on your

    phones.

    Materials: compass, pencil

    Support: Video

    Procedure:

    1. Record the p- and s- wave arrival times on your data table. Use the chart below. Each little line is about

    1.5 seconds.

    2. Subtract the p-wave arrival time from the s-wave time to find the lag time.

    3. Use the Travel Time Chart to determine the distance from the epicenter.

    4. Use the scale in the middle of the maps to find the distance from the station.

    5. Use the compass to draw a circle around the station the correct distance from the epicenter.

    6. Do all four stations (the fourth station is for accuracy). The epicenter is the place where at least three of the

    circles meet. Put a star on that spot.

    Data:

    Table:

    Earthquake 1

    Seismographic Station City      p-wave arrival time       s-wave arrival time      Lag Time Distance from City

    Chicago

    Kansas City

    Santa Barbara

    Seattle

    Earthquake 2   Seismographic Station City    p-wave arrival time    s-wave arrival time    Lag Time Distance from City

    Newport

    Tucson

    Rockville

    McMinnville

    Analysis:

    1. Between the S & P wave, which one arrives first? Why?

    2. What instrument recorded the information from the p and s-wave arrival times?

    3. Why didn’t the p-waves arrive in each city at the same time?

    4. Does the lag time get shorter or longer the further you get from the epicenter?

    5. How could you prove an epicenter was where you calculated it to be?

     

     

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